Isolation from estuarine sediments of a Desulfovibrio strain which can grow on lactate coupled to the reductive dehalogenation of 2,4, 6-tribromophenol.
Strain TBP-1, an anaerobic bacterium capable of reductively dehalogenating 2,4,6-tribromophenol to phenol, was isolated from estuarine sediments of the Arthur Kill in the New York/New Jersey harbor. It is a gram-negative, motile, vibrio-shaped, obligate anaerobe which grows on lactate, pyruvate, hydrogen, and fumarate when provided sulfate as an electron acceptor. The organism accumulates acetate when grown on lactate and sulfate, contains desulfoviridin, and will not grow in the absence of NaCl. It will not utilize acetate, succinate, propionate, or butyrate for growth via sulfate reduction. When supplied with lactate as an electron donor, strain TBP-1 will utilize sulfate, sulfite, sulfur, and thiosulfate for growth but not nitrate, fumarate, or acrylate. This organism debrominates 2-, 4-, 2,4-, 2,6-, and 2,4,6-bromophenol but not 3- or 2,3-bromophenol or monobrominated benzoates. It will not dehalogenate monochlorinated, fluorinated, or iodinated phenols or chlorinated benzoates. Together with its physiological characteristics, its 16S rRNA gene sequence places it in the genus Desulfovibrio. The average growth yield of strain TBP-1 grown on a defined medium supplemented with lactate and 2,4,6-bromophenol is 3.71 mg of protein/mmol of phenol produced, and the yield was 1.42 mg of protein/mmol of phenol produced when 4-bromophenol was the electron acceptor. Average growth yields (milligrams of protein per millimole of electrons utilized) for Desulfovibrio sp. strain TBP-1 grown with 2,4,6-bromophenol, 4-bromophenol, or sulfate are 0.62, 0.71, and 1.07, respectively. Growth did not occur when either lactate or 2,4,6-bromophenol was omitted from the growth medium. These results indicate that Desulfovibrio sp. strain TBP-1 is capable of growth via halorespiration. (+info)
The superoxide dismutase activity of desulfoferrodoxin from Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 27774.
Desulfoferrodoxin (Dfx), a small iron protein containing two mononuclear iron centres (designated centre I and II), was shown to complement superoxide dismutase (SOD) deficient mutants of Escherichia coli [Pianzzola, M.J., Soubes M. & Touati, D. (1996) J. Bacteriol. 178, 6736-6742]. Furthermore, neelaredoxin, a protein from Desulfovibrio gigas containing an iron site similar to centre II of Dfx, was recently shown to have a significant SOD activity [Silva, G., Oliveira, S., Gomes, C.M., Pacheco, I., Liu, M.Y., Xavier, A.V., Teixeira, M., Le Gall, J. & Rodrigues-Pousada, C. (1999) Eur. J. Biochem. 259, 235-243]. Thus, the SOD activity of Dfx isolated from the sulphate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 27774 was studied. The protein exhibits a SOD activity of 70 U x mg-1, which increases approximately 2.5-fold upon incubation with cyanide. Cyanide binds specifically to Dfx centre II, yielding a low-spin iron species with g-values at 2.27 (g perpendicular) and 1.96 (g parallel). Upon reaction of fully oxidized Dfx with the superoxide generating system xanthine/xanthine oxidase, Dfx centres I and II become partially reduced, suggesting that Dfx operates by a redox cycling mechanism, similar to those proposed for other SODs. Evidence for another SOD in D. desulfuricans is also presented - this enzyme is inhibited by cyanide, and N-terminal sequence data strongly indicates that it is an analogue to Cu,Zn-SODs isolated from other sources. This is the first indication that a Cu-containing protein may be present in a sulphate-reducing bacterium. (+info)
Carboxy-terminal processing of the large subunit of [Fe] hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 7757.
hydA and hydB, the genes encoding the large (46-kDa) and small (13. 5-kDa) subunits of the periplasmic [Fe] hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 7757, have been cloned and sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence of the genes product showed complete identity to the sequence of the well-characterized [Fe] hydrogenase from the closely related species Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough (G. Voordouw and S. Brenner, Eur. J. Biochem. 148:515-520, 1985). The data show that in addition to the well-known signal peptide preceding the NH2 terminus of the mature small subunit, the large subunit undergoes a carboxy-terminal processing involving the cleavage of a peptide of 24 residues, in agreement with the recently reported data on the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme (Y. Nicolet, C. Piras, P. Legrand, E. C. Hatchikian, and J. C. Fontecilla-Camps, Structure 7:13-23, 1999). We suggest that this C-terminal processing is involved in the export of the protein to the periplasm. (+info)
Isolation and characterization of Desulfovibrio burkinensis sp. nov. from an African ricefield, and phylogeny of Desulfovibrio alcoholivorans.
A sulfate-reducing bacterium, strain HDvT (T = type strain), was isolated from an anoxic ricefield soil. Cells were Gram-negative, non-sporulating curved rods motile by means of a single polar flagellum. Cytochrome c3 and desulfoviridin were present. In the presence of sulfate, glycerol, 1,2- and 1,3-propanediol, dihydroxyacetone, pyruvate, lactate, fumarate, maleate, malate and succinate were incompletely oxidized mainly to acetate. Sulfite, thiosulfate, elemental sulfur, fumarate, maleate and malate were utilized as alternative electron acceptors. In the absence of added electron acceptors, pyruvate, fumarate, maleate, malate and dihydroxyacetone were fermented. The DNA base composition was 67 mol% G + C. The phylogenetic, phenotypic and physiological characteristics of strain HDvT indicate that it is a new species of the genus Desulfovibrio, for which the name Desulfovibrio burkinensis sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is HDvT (= DSM 6830T). Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that Desulfovibrio alcoholivorans was a distinct species supporting the previously published phenotypic data. (+info)
Desulfovibrio zosterae sp. nov., a new sulfate reducer isolated from surface-sterilized roots of the seagrass Zostera marina.
A sulfate-reducing bacterium, designated strain lacT, was isolated from surface-sterilized roots of the benthic macrophyte Zostera marina. Cells were motile by means of a single polar flagellum. Strain lacT utilized lactate, pyruvate, malate, ethanol, L-alanine, fumarate, choline and fructose with sulfate as electron acceptor. In addition, fumarate, pyruvate and fructose were also degraded without an external electron acceptor. Sulfate could be substituted with thiosulfate, sulfite and elemental sulfur. Optimal growth was observed between 32.5 and 34.5 degrees C, at an NaCl concentration of 0.2 M and in a pH range between 6.8 and 7.3. The G + C content of the DNA was 42.7 +/- 0.2 mol%. Desulfoviridin and catalase were present. Strain lacT contained c-type cytochromes. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and the fatty acid pattern grouped this isolate into the genus Desulfovibrio. However, strain lacT differs from all other described Desulfovibrio species on the bases of its 16S rRNA gene sequence, the G + C content, its cellular lipid pattern and the utilization pattern of substrates. These characteristics establish strain lacT (= DSM 11974T) as a novel species of the genus Desulfovibrio, for which the name Desulfovibrio zosterae sp. nov. is proposed. (+info)
Reduction of technetium by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans: biocatalyst characterization and use in a flowthrough bioreactor.
Resting cells of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans coupled the oxidation of a range of electron donors to Tc(VII) reduction. The reduced technetium was precipitated as an insoluble low-valence oxide. The optimum electron donor for the biotransformation was hydrogen, although rapid rates of reduction were also supported when formate or pyruvate was supplied to the cells. Technetium reduction was less efficient when the growth substrates lactate and ethanol were supplied as electron donors, while glycerol, succinate, acetate, and methanol supported negligible reduction. Enzyme activity was stable for several weeks and was insensitive to oxygen. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the radionuclide was precipitated at the periphery of the cell. Cells poisoned with Cu(II), which is selective for periplasmic but not cytoplasmic hydrogenases, were unable to reduce Tc(VII), a result consistent with the involvement of a periplasmic hydrogenase in Tc(VII) reduction. Resting cells, immobilized in a flowthrough membrane bioreactor and supplied with Tc(VII)-supplemented solution, accumulated substantial quantities of the radionuclide when formate was supplied as the electron donor, indicating the potential of this organism as a biocatalyst to treat Tc-contaminated wastewaters. (+info)
Culturable populations of Sporomusa spp. and Desulfovibrio spp. in the anoxic bulk soil of flooded rice microcosms.
Most-probable-number (MPN) counts were made of homoacetogenic and other bacteria present in the anoxic flooded bulk soil of laboratory microcosms containing 90- to 95-day-old rice plants. MPN counts with substrates known to be useful for the selective enrichment or the cultivation of homoacetogenic bacteria (betaine, ethylene glycol, 2, 3-butanediol, and 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate) gave counts of 2.3 x 10(3) to 2.8 x 10(5) cells per g of dry soil. Homoacetogens isolated from the terminal positive steps of these dilution cultures belonged to the genus Sporomusa. Counts with succinate, ethanol, and lactate gave much higher MPNs of 5.9 x 10(5) to 3.4 x 10(7) cells per g of dry soil and led to the isolation of Desulfovibrio spp. Counting experiments on lactate and ethanol which included Methanospirillum hungatei in the medium gave MPNs of 2.3 x 10(6) to 7.5 x 10(8) cells per g of dry soil and led to the isolation of Sporomusa spp. The latter strains could grow with betaine, ethylene glycol, 2, 3-butanediol, and/or 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate, but apparently most cells of Sporomusa spp. did not initiate growth in counting experiments with those substrates. Spores apparently accounted for 2. 2% or less of the culturable bacteria. It appears that culturable Desulfovibrio spp. and Sporomusa spp. were present in approximately equal numbers in the bulk soil. Multiple, phylogenetically-distinct, phenotypically-different, strains of each genus were found in the same soil system. (+info)
Crystal structure and mechanism of CO dehydrogenase, a molybdo iron-sulfur flavoprotein containing S-selanylcysteine.
CO dehydrogenase from the aerobic bacterium Oligotropha carboxidovorans catalyzes the oxidation of CO with H(2)O, yielding CO(2), two electrons, and two H(+). Its crystal structure in the air-oxidized form has been determined to 2.2 A. The active site of the enzyme, which contains molybdenum with three oxygen ligands, molybdopterin-cytosine dinucleotide and S-selanylcysteine, delivers the electrons to an intramolecular electron transport chain composed of two types of [2Fe-2S] clusters and flavin-adenine dinucleotide. CO dehydrogenase is composed of an 88.7-kDa molybdoprotein (L), a 30. 2-kDa flavoprotein (M), and a 17.8-kDa iron-sulfur protein (S). It is organized as a dimer of LMS heterotrimers and resembles xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase in many, but not all, aspects. A mechanism based on a structure with the bound suicide-substrate cyanide is suggested and displays the necessity of S-selanylcysteine for the catalyzed reaction. (+info)