Spatz-Lindenberg disease: a rare cause of vascular dementia.
BACKGROUND: Isolated cerebral thromboangiitis obliterans (Spatz-Lindenberg disease) is not well recognized as a cause of vascular dementia. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 58-year-old woman presented with dementia and pyramidal signs. Neuroimaging showed multiple areas of white matter change. Brain biopsy showed intimal thickening of the walls of leptomeningeal and intraparenchymal arteries, almost to complete occlusion, with an intact internal elastic lamina and media and without inflammation or infiltration. The cortex showed only moderate gliosis. CONCLUSIONS: Spatz-Lindenberg disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of vascular dementia. Additional studies of its pathogenesis are required to determine appropriate treatment. (+info)
Plasma chain-breaking antioxidants in Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia and Parkinson's disease.
We studied the plasma chain-breaking antioxidants alpha carotene, beta carotene, lycopene, Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Vitamin E and a measure of total antioxidant capacity, TAC, in 79 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), 37 patients with vascular dementia (VaD), 18 patients with Parkinson's disease and dementia (PDem), and 58 matching controls, together with 41 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and 41 matching controls. Significant reductions in individual antioxidants were observed in all dementia groups. When compared to controls, the following were reduced: Vitamin A in AD (p < 0.01) and VaD (p < 0.001); Vitamin C in AD (p < 0.001), VaD (p < 0.001) and PDem (p < 0.01); Vitamin E in AD (p < 0.01) and VaD (p < 0.001); beta carotene in VaD (p = 0.01); lycopene in PDem (p < 0.001). Lycopene was also reduced in PDem compared to AD (p < 0.001) and VaD (p < 0.001). Antioxidant levels in PD were not depleted. No significant change in TAC was seen in any group. The reduction in plasma chain-breaking antioxidants in patients with dementia may reflect an increased free-radical activity, and a common role in cognitive impairment in these conditions. Increased free-radical activity in VaD and PDem could be associated with concomitant AD pathology. Individual antioxidant changes are not reflected in TAC. (+info)
Effect of thrombin inhibition in vascular dementia and silent cerebrovascular disease. An MR spectroscopy study.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Silent cerebrovascular disease (CVD) has been proposed as a predisposing condition for clinically overt stroke and vascular dementia. Recently, we found increased thrombin generation in silent CVD patients. Here, we report the effect of thrombin inhibition using a potent selective thrombin inhibitor on the cerebral metabolism and function in peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) patients with or without silent CVD. METHODS: We examined 17 mild chronic PAOD patients, including 2 cases of vascular dementia. We divided the patients into 2 groups: 1 was the advanced CVD group with multiple lacunar infarction and/or advanced periventricular hyperintensity detected by brain MRI (n=12), and the other was the no CVD group that had none of these abnormalities (n=5). We assessed the cerebral biochemical compounds in the deep white matter area and cerebellar hemisphere (8 cm3) by proton MR spectroscopy before and after infusion of argatroban (10 mg/d IV) over 2 hours for 7 days. RESULTS: The ratio of N-acetylasparate (NAA) to total creatine (Cre) in the deep white matter area was significantly lower in the advanced CVD group than in the no CVD group, whereas there were no significant differences in this ratio in the cerebellar hemisphere between the 2 groups. In the former group, this decreased NAA/Cre ratio significantly increased after argatroban therapy, whereas there was no change in the latter group. The 2 patients with vascular dementia showed clinical improvement with marked increases in the NAA/Cre ratio and mini-mental score. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that increased thrombin generation may have some pathophysiological roles in developing vascular dementia and its chronic predisposing conditions. Thrombin inhibition may break this vicious cycle and lead to clinical improvement. (+info)
Magnetization transfer ratio of white matter hyperintensities in subcortical ischemic vascular dementia.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In subjects with subcortical ischemic vascular dementia (SIVD), tissue vacuolization, myelin pallor, and demyelination have been found on pathologic examination of white matter signal hyperintensities (WMSH). Magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) values provide a potential measure of compromised white matter integrity. The purpose of this study was to determine if there were differences in MTR of WMSH between subjects with SIVD and cognitively normal healthy control subjects. METHODS: Fifteen subjects with SIVD and 16 control subjects of comparable age and sex were studied. MTR images were coregistered to MR images segmented into tissue classes (gray matter, white matter, CSF, WMSH, and lacunar infarcts). MTR of WMSH was compared across groups and examined by WMSH location, size, and total burden. RESULTS: WMSH burden was greater in SIVD patients than in control subjects (2.4% vs 0.67%). MTR of WMSH did not differ between groups, but MTR of periventricular WMSH was lower in SIVD patients than in control subjects (37.6% vs 39.4%). Even after accounting for covariant effects of lesion burden, there was still a trend toward reduced periventricular WMSH MTR in the group with dementia. There was no correlation between WMSH MTR and WMSH lesion size. CONCLUSION: These findings are consistent with observations that pathologic changes in vascular dementia are most severe in the periventricular white matter and suggest that insight into the pathophysiology of SIVD might be gleaned from studies of the periventricular region. (+info)
Increased thromboxane biosynthesis is associated with poststroke dementia.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: It has been suggested that daily intake of aspirin is associated with a reduction of cognitive decline, both in normal and in demented subjects, but the mechanism is unclear. We have therefore studied the relationship between thromboxane (TX) A(2) biosynthesis, as reflected by the urinary excretion of 11-dehydro-TXB(2), and the presence of dementia in patients after acute stroke. METHODS: Patients from the Rotterdam Stroke Databank were screened for dementia between 3 and 9 months after stroke. Patients had a full neurological examination, neuropsychological screening, and, if indicated, extensive neuropsychological examination. Criteria used for the diagnosis of dementia were from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition (Revised). Urine samples were taken at the time of screening. Urinary 11-dehydro-TXB(2) was measured by means of a previously validated radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: Dementia was diagnosed in 71 patients, and urine samples were available for 62. Median value (range) of 11-dehydro-TXB(2) was 399 (89 to 2105) pmol/mmol creatinine for demented patients versus 273 (80 to 1957) for 69 controls with stroke but without dementia (P=0.013). No difference was found between 44 patients with vascular dementia, 404 (89 to 2105) pmol/mmol creatinine, and 18 patients with Alzheimer's disease plus cerebrovascular disease, 399 (96 to 1467) pmol/mmol creatinine (P=0.68). In a stepwise logistic regression analysis, in which possible confounders such as use of antiplatelet medication, cardiovascular risk factors, and type of stroke were taken into account, increased urinary excretion of 11-dehydro-TXB(2) remained independently related to the presence of dementia (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.22 per 100 pmol/mmol creatinine). The difference in metabolite excretion rates between demented and nondemented patients was most prominent within the subgroup of ischemic stroke patients who received aspirin (P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Increased thromboxane biosynthesis in the chronic phase after stroke is associated with the presence of but not the type of poststroke dementia. It is particularly apparent in patients on aspirin, thereby suggesting the involvement of extraplatelet sources of TXA(2) production in this setting. (+info)
Diagnosing dementia and normal aging: clinical relevance of brain ratios and cognitive performance in a Brazilian sample.
The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic value (clinical application) of brain measures and cognitive function. Alzheimer and multi-infarct patients (N = 30) and normal subjects over the age of 50 (N = 40) were submitted to a medical, neurological and cognitive investigation. The cognitive tests applied were Mini-Mental, word span, digit span, logical memory, spatial recognition span, Boston naming test, praxis, and calculation tests. The brain ratios calculated were the ventricle-brain, bifrontal, bicaudate, third ventricle, and suprasellar cistern measures. These data were obtained from a brain computer tomography scan, and the cutoff values from receiver operating characteristic curves. We analyzed the diagnostic parameters provided by these ratios and compared them to those obtained by cognitive evaluation. The sensitivity and specificity of cognitive tests were higher than brain measures, although dementia patients presented higher ratios, showing poorer cognitive performances than normal individuals. Normal controls over the age of 70 presented higher measures than younger groups, but similar cognitive performance. We found diffuse losses of tissue from the central nervous system related to distribution of cerebrospinal fluid in dementia patients. The likelihood of case identification by functional impairment was higher than when changes of the structure of the central nervous system were used. Cognitive evaluation still seems to be the best method to screen individuals from the community, especially for developing countries, where the cost of brain imaging precludes its use for screening and initial assessment of dementia. (+info)
The association between demographic factors, disease severity and the duration of symptoms at clinical presentation in elderly people with dementia.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between factors unrelated to the disease process, the duration of symptoms and the degree of cognitive or functional impairment in elderly patients presenting with dementia. METHOD: The living situation, educational level, age, gender and diagnosis based on standardized criteria were recorded for 209 elderly patients presenting to a memory clinic with dementia. Cognitive and functional deficits were measured with the cognitive section of the Cambridge Mental Disorders of the Elderly Examination combined with the Mini-Mental State Examination and the abbreviated version of the Blessed dementia scale, respectively. RESULTS: 129 patients had a diagnosis of probable Alzheimer's disease, 19 had probable ischaemic vascular dementia and 61 had mixed dementia. There was no effect of diagnosis on duration of symptoms or dementia severity at the time of presentation. Patients living with a son or daughter were more functionally impaired than those living alone or with a spouse. Males had higher cognitive scores but did not have milder functional deficits. Patients with only a primary-school education had a trend towards lower cognitive scores at presentation but did not have more functional deficits. CONCLUSIONS: The gender of the patient and the relationship to the carer are associated with cognitive and functional scores at the time of presentation in patients with dementia. (+info)
Diagnostic impact of cerebral transit time in the identification of microangiopathy in dementia: A transcranial ultrasound study.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The diagnosis and quantification of microangiopathy in dementia is difficult. The assessment of small-vessel disease requires expensive and sophisticated nuclear medicine techniques. This study was performed to identify microangiopathy related to the integrity of cerebral microcirculation by sonographic measurements (arteriovenous cerebral transit time [cTT]). METHODS: We performed transcranial color-coded duplex sonography in 40 patients with vascular dementia, 20 patients with Alzheimer's disease or Lewy body disease, and 25 age-matched controls. The clinical diagnosis was established by history of dementia and neuroimaging findings. Cognitive impairment was assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination and Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale. cTT is defined as the time required by an ultrasound contrast agent to pass from a cerebral artery to a vein. This was measured by recording the power-Doppler intensity curves in the P2 segment of the posterior cerebral artery and the vein of Galen. Previous studies have shown a prolongation of cTT in patients with cerebral microangiopathy. RESULTS: cTT was substantially prolonged in patients with vascular dementia (5.8 seconds; 25th percentile 4.5; 75th percentile 7.5; U test, P<0.001) compared with controls (3.1 seconds; 2.3; 3.4) but not in patients with degenerative dementia (3.7 seconds; 3.7; 4.2). In patients with vascular dementia, cTT was significantly correlated with cognitive impairment. CONCLUSIONS: cTT may be useful tool to disclose small-vessel disease in demented patients. Examination is noninvasive and quickly performed. It may be also useful in follow-up examinations in patients undergoing therapy. (+info)