Extraction and analysis of cosmetic active ingredients from an anti-cellulitis transdermal delivery system by high-performance liquid chromatography.
A new transdermal delivery system that controls cellulitis is evaluated using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection. An extraction procedure and the validation of the analytical method to assay the active excipients from the Centella asiatica plant (asiaticoside, madacessic acid, and asiatic acid) are described. Excellent results ae obtained in terms of linearity, accuracy, and specificity of the analytical method. (+info)
Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the environment: agents of subtle change?
During the last three decades, the impact of chemical pollution has focused almost exclusively on the conventional "priority" pollutants, especially those acutely toxic/carcinogenic pesticides and industrial intermediates displaying persistence in the environment. This spectrum of chemicals, however, is only one piece of the larger puzzle in "holistic" risk assessment. Another diverse group of bioactive chemicals receiving comparatively little attention as potential environmental pollutants includes the pharmaceuticals and active ingredients in personal care products (in this review collectively termed PPCPs), both human and veterinary, including not just prescription drugs and biologics, but also diagnostic agents, "nutraceuticals," fragrances, sun-screen agents, and numerous others. These compounds and their bioactive metabolites can be continually introduced to the aquatic environment as complex mixtures via a number of routes but primarily by both untreated and treated sewage. Aquatic pollution is particularly troublesome because aquatic organisms are captive to continual life-cycle, multigenerational exposure. The possibility for continual but undetectable or unnoticed effects on aquatic organisms is particularly worrisome because effects could accumulate so slowly that major change goes undetected until the cumulative level of these effects finally cascades to irreversible change--change that would otherwise be attributed to natural adaptation or ecologic succession. As opposed to the conventional, persistent priority pollutants, PPCPs need not be persistent if they are continually introduced to surface waters, even at low parts-per-trillion/parts-per-billion concentrations (ng-microg/L). Even though some PPCPs are extremely persistent and introduced to the environment in very high quantities and perhaps have already gained ubiquity worldwide, others could act as if they were persistent, simply because their continual infusion into the aquatic environment serves to sustain perpetual life-cycle exposures for aquatic organisms. This review attempts to synthesize the literature on environmental origin, distribution/occurrence, and effects and to catalyze a more focused discussion in the environmental science community. (+info)
Tretinoin and cutaneous photoaging. Guaranteed adverse effects!
* A cream containing 0.05% tretinoin (Retinova((R)) is approved for treatment of sun-induced skin damage ("photoaging").* Three trials comparing tretinoin with the excipient show that the effects of tretinoin cream are at best limited and slow to occur. Furthermore, they disappear on treatment cessation, necessitating long-term use.* The 0.05% tretinoin cream has poor local tolerability: most subjects develop irritation and fragile skin and require longer intervals between each application. Systemic adverse effects occur in some circumstances.* There are persistent doubts about whether it is safe to use tretinoin during pregnancy. (+info)
Mercury poisoning associated with a Mexican beauty cream.
OBJECTIVES: To describe demographic characteristics, patterns of use, and symptoms associated with mercury poisoning among persons who used a Mexican beauty cream containing mercurous chloride and to estimate the prevalence of cream use in Texas near the Mexico border. DESIGN: Case series and cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Border communities of Arizona, California, New Mexico, and Texas. PARTICIPANTS: Persons who used the cream and contacted a health department in response to announcements about the cream and households that participated in the Survey of Health and Environmental Conditions in Texas Border Counties and Colonias, 1997. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Urine mercury concentrations, self-reported symptoms, and prevalence of cream use among households. RESULTS: Of 330 cream users who contacted their health department, 96% were women, and 95% were Hispanic. The mean urine mercury concentration was 146.7 microg/L (reference range : 0-20 microg/L). In 5% of 2,194 randomly selected Texas households near the Mexico border, at least 1 person had used "Crema de Belleza-Manning" (Laboratorios Vida Natural, S.A., Tampico, Tamaulipas, Mexico) in the previous year. CONCLUSIONS: Most cream users had increased urine mercury concentrations. Cream use was common in Texas near the Mexico border. Physicians should consider toxicity in patients with neurologic symptoms of unclear cause and use public health departments when investigating unusual illnesses. (+info)
Effect of hand cleansing with antimicrobial soap or alcohol-based gel on microbial colonization of artificial fingernails worn by health care workers.
This study was undertaken to determine differences in microflora on the nails of health care workers (HCWs) wearing artificial nails compared with control HCWs with native nails and to assess the effect on these microflora of hand cleansing with antimicrobial soap or alcohol-based gel. Cultures were obtained from 21 HCWs wearing artificial nails and 20 control HCWs before and after using antimicrobial soap or alcohol-based gel. Before cleansing with soap, 86% of HCWs with artificial nails had a pathogen (gram-negative bacilli, Staphylococcus aureus, or yeasts) isolated, compared with 35% of controls (P=.003); a similar difference was noted before hand cleansing with gel (68% vs. 28%; P=.03). Significantly more HCWs with artificial nails than controls had pathogens remaining after hand cleansing with soap or gel. Of HCWs with artificial nails, only 11% cleared pathogens with soap compared with 38% with gel. Of control HCWs, only 14% cleared with soap compared with 80% with gel. Artificial acrylic fingernails could contribute to the transmission of pathogens, and their use by HCWs should be discouraged. (+info)
Serratia liquefaciens bloodstream infections from contamination of epoetin alfa at a hemodialysis center.
BACKGROUND: In a one month period, 10 Serratia liquefaciens bloodstream infections and 6 pyrogenic reactions occurred in outpatients at a hemodialysis center. METHODS: We performed a cohort study of all hemodialysis sessions on days that staff members reported S. liquefaciens bloodstream infections or pyrogenic reactions. We reviewed procedures and cultured samples of water, medications, soaps, and hand lotions and swabs from the hands of personnel. RESULTS: We analyzed 208 sessions involving 48 patients. In 12 sessions, patients had S. liquefaciens bloodstream infections, and in 8, patients had pyrogenic reactions without bloodstream infection. Sessions with infections or reactions were associated with higher median doses of epoetin alfa than the 188 other sessions (6500 vs. 4000 U, P=0.03) and were more common during afternoon or evening shifts than morning shifts (P=0.03). Sessions with infections or reactions were associated with doses of epoetin alfa of more than 4000 U (multivariate odds ratio, 4.0; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.3 to 12.3). A review of procedures revealed that preservative-free, single-use vials of epoetin alfa were punctured multiple times, and residual epoetin alfa from multiple vials was pooled and administered to patients. S. liquefaciens was isolated from pooled epoetin alfa, empty vials of epoetin alfa that had been pooled, antibacterial soap, and hand lotion. All the isolates were identical by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. After the practice of pooling epoetin alfa was discontinued and the contaminated soap and lotion were replaced, no further S. liquefaciens bloodstream infections or pyrogenic reactions occurred at this hemodialysis facility. CONCLUSIONS: Puncturing single-use vials multiple times and pooling preservative-free epoetin alfa caused this outbreak of bloodstream infections in a hemodialysis unit. To prevent similar outbreaks, medical personnel should follow the manufacturer's guidelines for the use of preservative-free medications. (+info)
Inhibition of human glutathione S-transferase P1-1 by tocopherols and alpha-tocopherol derivatives.
alpha-Tocopherol inhibits glutathione S-transferase P1-1 (GST P1-1) (R.I.M. van Haaften, C.T.A. Evelo, G.R.M.M. Haenen, A. Bast, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 280 (2001)). In various cosmetic and dietary products alpha-tocopherol is added as a tocopherol ester. Therefore we have studied the effect of various tocopherol derivatives on GST P1-1 activity. It was found that GST P1-1 is inhibited, in a concentration dependent manner, by these compounds. Of the compounds tested, the tocopherols were the most potent inhibitors of GST P1-1; the concentration giving 50% inhibition (IC(50)) is <1 microM. The esterified tocopherols and alpha-tocopherol quinone also inhibit the GST P1-1 activity at a very low concentration: for most compounds the IC(50) was below 10 microM. RRR-alpha-Tocopherol acetate lowered the V(max) values, but did not affect the K(m) for either 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene or GSH. This indicates that the GST P1-1 enzyme is non-competitively inhibited by RRR-alpha-tocopherol acetate. The potential implications of GST P1-1 inhibition by tocopherol and alpha-tocopherol derivatives are discussed. (+info)
A simplex-optimized chromatographic separation of fourteen cosmetic preservatives: analysis of commercial products.
An ion-interaction high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-diode-array detection method is developed and optimized for the separation of typical antimicrobial agents used in cosmetics and hygiene products. The most used preservatives contain different molecular structures, different functionalities, and are characterized by different chemical properties. Organic acids, alkyl esters of benzoic acids, alkyl p-hydroxy benzoic acids (parabens), phenol derivatives, and carbanilides represent the most used preservatives, and are often present in multicomponent mixtures. In order to develop a multicomponent method to be used in quality control analysis, the ion-interaction reagent reversed-phase HPLC technique seems to be particularly suitable, because it allows for the simultaneous separation of acidic, basic, and neutral species. The experimental conditions of the method are developed by OVAT (one variable at a time) treatment and further optimized by a multivariate approach based on a Simplex algorithm that works on a desirability function targeted to maximize the resolution in a multicomponent mixture. The new method proposed that is able to simultaneously separate fourteen preservatives is applied in the analysis of commercial products. (+info)