Pharmacokinetics of natural progesterone administered in the form of a vaginal tablet.
Our study was conducted to assess the pharmacokinetics of natural progesterone administered in the novel formula of an effervescent vaginal tablet. Fifty post-menopausal women, with a median age of 43.5 years (range 28-55), volunteered to participate in the research. All women discontinued their hormonal replacement therapy 1 month prior to the study. The pharmacokinetics of 50 and 100 mg of progesterone administered as a vaginal tablet were evaluated. After the initial administration of 50 mg or 100 mg, a mean serum Cmax of 20.43 +/- 8.01 nmol/l and 31.61 +/- 12.62 nmol/l (P < 0.0004) was reached at a Tmax of 6.1 +/- 2.63 and 6.4 +/- 3.35 h respectively. The terminal half-life was 13.18 +/- 1.3 and 13.7 +/- 1.05 h respectively. Continuous use of the 100-mg tablet resulted in a mean serum progesterone concentration of 26.08 +/- 13.96 nmol/l and 21.42 +/- 16.32 nmol/l after 14 and 30 days respectively. Women >40 years were found to have a significantly lower Tmax compared to younger women (P = 0.02). The continuous use of vaginal progesterone did not influence the hormonal, liver or lipid profiles evaluated. Only three (6%) women suffered from mild vaginal irritation. Natural progesterone given as a vaginal tablet is well tolerated, safe and an easily administered treatment. Even in a non-oestrogenized vagina the absorption was efficient and the 100 mg dosage resulted in adequate serum progesterone concentrations. (+info)
Oral bioequivalence of three ciprofloxacin formulations following single-dose administration: 500 mg tablet compared with 500 mg/10 mL or 500 mg/5 mL suspension and the effect of food on the absorption of ciprofloxacin oral suspension.
The oral bioequivalence and tolerability of two ciprofloxacin formulations (tablet and suspension) and the effect of food on the absorption of ciprofloxacin oral suspension were investigated. Sixty-eight young, healthy male subjects participated in two separate, randomized, crossover studies. In study 1, ciprofloxacin as a single 500 mg tablet or as 500 mg/10 mL oral suspension was administered in a fasted state on day 1. In study 2, subjects participated in a three-way crossover study in which ciprofloxacin suspension was administered as 500 mg/10 mL in a fasted state, or 500 mg/10 mL with food, or 500 mg/5 mL in a fasted state. Plasma ciprofloxacin concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Standard pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using non-compartmental methods. In study 1, geometric mean Cmax values of ciprofloxacin following the single 500 mg tablet and 500 mg/10 mL suspension doses were 2.36 and 2.18 mg/L, respectively; corresponding geometric mean t(max) values were 1.1 and 1.6 h, respectively. Geometric mean AUC(0-infinity) values were 12.0 and 11.8 mg x h/L, respectively. In study 2, geometric least squares mean Cmax values following ciprofloxacin 500 mg/10 mL and 500 mg/5 mL suspension during fasted conditions were 1.54 and 1.59 mg/L, respectively. Corresponding geometric least squares mean AUC(0-infinity) values were 7.3 and 8.0 mg x h/L. Administration of ciprofloxacin 500 mg/10 mL suspension, in either a fasted or fed state, was not associated with significant changes in Cmax (1.54 mg/L for fasted vs 1.37 mg/L for fed) or AUC(0-infinity) values (7.28 mg x h/L for fasted vs 8.19 mg x h/L for fed). Each ciprofloxacin formulation was well tolerated for the duration of each study. These studies demonstrated bioequivalence between ciprofloxacin 500 mg tablet and two strengths of ciprofloxacin suspension (500 mg/10 mL and 500 mg/5 mL). Bioavailability was unaltered by food. (+info)
Comparison of phylloquinone bioavailability from food sources or a supplement in human subjects.
Phylloquinone (K) absorption was assessed in 22- to 30-y-old human subjects consuming a standard test meal [402 kcal (1682 kJ), 27% energy from fat]. The absorption of phylloquinone, measured over a 9-h period as the area under the curve (AUC), was higher (P < 0.01) after the consumption of a 500- microgram phylloquinone tablet [27.55 +/- 10.08 nmol/(L. h), n = 8] than after the ingestion of 495 microgram phylloquinone as 150 g of raw spinach [4.79 +/- 1.11 nmol/(L. h), n = 3]. Less phylloquinone (P < 0.05) was absorbed from 50 g of spinach (AUC = 2.49 +/- 1.11 nmol/(L. h) than from 150 g of spinach. Absorption of phylloquinone from fresh spinach (165 microgram K), fresh broccoli (184 microgram K) and fresh romaine lettuce (179 microgram K) did not differ. There was no difference in phylloquinone absorption from fresh or cooked broccoli or from fresh romaine lettuce consumed with a meal containing 30 or 45% energy as fat. (+info)
Distribution of uranium in rats implanted with depleted uranium pellets.
During the Persian Gulf War, soldiers were injured with depleted uranium (DU) fragments. To assess the potential health risks associated with chronic exposure to DU, Sprague Dawley rats were surgically implanted with DU pellets at 3 dose levels (low, medium and high). Biologically inert tantalum (Ta) pellets were used as controls. At 1 day and 6, 12, and 18 months after implantation, the rats were euthanized and tissue samples collected. Using kinetic phosphorimetry, uranium levels were measured. As early as 1 day after pellet implantation and at all subsequent sample times, the greatest concentrations of uranium were in the kidney and tibia. At all time points, uranium concentrations in kidney and bone (tibia and skull) were significantly greater in the high-dose rats than in the Ta-control group. By 18 months post-implantation, the uranium concentration in kidney and bone of low-dose animals was significantly different from that in the Ta controls. Significant concentrations of uranium were excreted in the urine throughout the 18 months of the study (224 +/- 32 ng U/ml urine in low-dose rats and 1010 +/- 87 ng U/ml urine in high-dose rats at 12 months). Many other tissues (muscle, spleen, liver, heart, lung, brain, lymph nodes, and testicles) contained significant concentrations of uranium in the implanted animals. From these results, we conclude that kidney and bone are the primary reservoirs for uranium redistributed from intramuscularly embedded fragments. The accumulations in brain, lymph nodes, and testicles suggest the potential for unanticipated physiological consequences of exposure to uranium through this route. (+info)
Effect of chronic magnesium supplementation on magnesium distribution in healthy volunteers evaluated by 31P-NMRS and ion selective electrodes.
AIMS: The role of magnesium (Mg) intake in the prevention and treatment of diseases is greatly debated. Mg biodistribution after chronic Mg supplementation was investigated, using state-of-the-art technology to detect changes in free ionized Mg, both at extra- and intracellular levels. METHODS: Thirty young healthy male volunteers participated in a randomised, placebo (P)-controlled, double-blind trial. The treated group (MgS) took 12 mmol magnesium lactate daily for 1 month. Subjects underwent in vivo 31P-NMR spectroscopy and complete clinical and biological examinations, on the first and last day of the trial. Total Mg was measured in plasma, red blood cells and 24 h urine ([Mg]U ). Plasma ionized Mg was measured by ion-selective electrodes. Intracellular free Mg concentrations of skeletal muscle and brain tissues were determined noninvasively by in vivo 31P-NMR at 3T. NMR data were automatically processed with the dedicated software MAGAN. RESULTS: Only [Mg]U changed significantly after treatment (in mmol/24 h, for P, from 4.2+/-1.4 before to 4.1+/-1.3 after and, for MgS, from 3.9+/-1.1 before to 5. 1+/-1.1 after, t=2.15, P=0.04). The two groups did not differ, either before or after the trial, in any other parameter, whether clinical, biological or in relation with the Mg status. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic oral administration of Mg tablets to young healthy male volunteers at usual pharmaceutical doses does not alter Mg biodistribution. This study shows that an adequate and very complete noninvasive methodology is now available and compatible with the organization of clinical protocols which aim at a thorough evaluation of Mg biodistribution. (+info)
Gastrointestinal spread of oral prolonged-release mesalazine microgranules (Pentasa) dosed as either tablets or sachet.
BACKGROUND: There is increasing interest in using higher dosages of mesalazine for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease; however, with current mesalazine products this involves the use of 8-16 tablets per day. AIM: To evaluate the disposition, dispersion and movements of Pentasa prolonged-release microgranules following single dosing of either tablets (2 x 500 mg) or a new 1 g sachet (unit dose, microgranules in a foil bag). METHODS: A randomized crossover study in eight healthy volunteers was undertaken. Both formulations were radiolabelled by neutron activation and dosed in the fasted state. Location of the preparations in the bowel was assessed over 24 h by scintigraphy. RESULTS: Dissolution testing at pH 7.5 showed comparable in vitro mesalazine release properties for the tablet and sachet preparations. In vivo disposition of the microgranules administered as either tablets or sachet was comparable in terms of gastric emptying, small intestinal transit and colon arrival. CONCLUSIONS: Pentasa sachets 1 g unit dose offers the same release of mesalazine as Pentasa 500 mg tablets. Drug release occurs throughout the gastrointestinal tract from stomach to colon, with the advantage of fewer oral doses and ease of swallowing. (+info)
Huperzine-A in capsules and tablets for treating patients with Alzheimer disease.
AIM: To compare the efficacy and safety between huperzine-A (Hup) in capsules and tablets for treating patients with Alzheimer disease (AD). METHODS: Using multicenter, prospective, double-blind, double-mimic, parallel, positive controlled and randomized methods, 60 patients meeting with the NINCDS-ARDRA criteria of AD were divided into 2 equal groups. Patients in the capsule group received 4 capsules of Hup (each contains 50 micrograms) and 4 tablets of placebo (lactose and starch inside); while the tablet group received 4 tablets of Hup (each contains 50 micrograms) and 4 capsules of placebo, p.o., twice a day for 60 d. All the patients were evaluated with a lot of related ranting scales, and physiological and laboratory examination. RESULTS: There were significant differences (P < 0.01) on all the psychological evaluations between 'before' and 'after' the 60-d trial of 2 groups, but there was no significant difference between 2 groups by group t test (P > 0.05). The changes of oxygen free radicals in 2 groups showed marked improvement. No severe side effect besides moderate to mild nausea was found in both groups. CONCLUSION: There is equal efficacy and safety between Hup in capsule and tablet for treating patients with AD, and Hup can reduce the pathological changes of the oxygen free radicals in the plasma and erythrocytes of patients with AD. (+info)
The application of VIS spectrophotometric determination of enalapril maleate in substance, in tablets and estimation of ester group stability.
A new spectrophotometric VIS method is proposed for the determination of enalapril maleate in pure substance and in tablets. Attempts have been made to estimate stability of the ester group in the molecule of enalapril maleate in the solid phase at 70 degrees C. (+info)