The effect of chronic coffee drinking on blood pressure: a meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials.
We sought to assess the effect of coffee consumption on blood pressure in humans. Our data sources included a MEDLINE search of the literature published before December 1997, bibliography review, and expert consultation. We selected controlled trials in which coffee consumption was the only difference between the intervention and control groups, mean blood pressure change was reported for each group or period, and treatment lasted for >24 hours. Of 36 studies initially identified, 11 (522 participants) met these inclusion criteria. Information on sample size, study design, participant characteristics (gender, race, age, baseline blood pressure, and antihypertensive medications), and treatment results were abstracted by 3 reviewers using a standardized protocol. Treatment effect of coffee consumption on blood pressure was estimated with the use of a random-effects model. In the 11 trials, median duration was 56 days (range, 14 to 79 days), and median dose of coffee was 5 cups/d. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased by 2.4 (range, 1.0 to 3.7) mm Hg and 1.2 (range, 0.4 to 2.1) mm Hg, respectively, with coffee treatment compared with control. Multiple linear regression analysis identified an independent, positive relationship between cups of coffee consumed and subsequent change in systolic blood pressure, independent of age of study participants and study design characteristics. The effect of coffee drinking on systolic and diastolic blood pressure was greater in trials with younger participants. Our findings provide support for a relationship between coffee consumption and higher blood pressure. Trials of coffee cessation of longer duration and in persons with hypertension should be performed. (+info)
Association of dietary protein intake and coffee consumption with serum homocysteine concentrations in an older population.
BACKGROUND: Elevated blood concentrations of total homocysteine (tHcy) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Previous studies identified suboptimal nutritional status and dietary intake of folate, vitamin B-6, and vitamin B-12 as determinants of elevated tHcy. OBJECTIVE: We identified other nutritional factors associated with tHcy in 260 retired schoolteachers in the Baltimore metropolitan area. DESIGN: We performed observational analyses of baseline and 2-4-mo follow-up data collected in a study designed to test the feasibility of conducting a large-scale clinical trial of vitamin supplements by mail. The study population consisted of 151 women and 109 men with a median age of 64 y. At baseline, each participant completed a food-frequency questionnaire. At follow-up, fasting serum tHcy was measured. RESULTS: In multivariable linear regression and generalized linear models, there was an independent, inverse dose-response relation between dietary protein and In tHcy (P = 0.002) and a positive, significant dose-response relation between coffee consumption and In tHcy (P for trend = 0.01). Other significant predictors of In tHcy were creatinine (positive; P = 0.0001) and prestudy use of supplemental B vitamins (inverse; P = 0.03). In stratified analyses restricted to persons receiving standard multivitamin therapy, the association of 1n tHcy with dietary protein and coffee persisted. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the hypothesis that increased protein intake and decreased coffee consumption may reduce tHcy and potentially prevent atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and other disease outcomes. (+info)
Effects of coffee on ambulatory blood pressure in older men and women: A randomized controlled trial.
This study assessed the effects of regular coffee drinking on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) in normotensive and hypertensive older men and women. Twenty-two normotensive and 26 hypertensive, nonsmoking men and women, with a mean age of 72.1 years (range, 54 to 89 years), took part in the study. After 2 weeks of a caffeine-free diet, subjects were randomized to continue with the caffeine-free diet and abstain from caffeine-containing drinks or drink instant coffee (5 cups per day, equivalent to 300 mg caffeine per day) in addition to the caffeine-free diet for a further 2 weeks. Change in systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP, DBP) determined by 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring showed significant interactions between coffee drinking and hypertension status. In the hypertensive group, rise in mean 24-hour SBP was greater by 4.8 (SEM, 1.3) mm Hg (P=0.031) and increase in mean 24-hour DBP was higher by 3.0 (1.0) mm Hg (P=0.010) in coffee drinkers than in abstainers. There were no significant differences between abstainers and coffee drinkers in the normotensive group for 24-hour, daytime, or nighttime SBP or DBP. In older men and women with treated or untreated hypertension, ABP increased in coffee drinkers and decreased in abstainers. Restriction of coffee intake may be beneficial in older hypertensive individuals. (+info)
Caffeine content of beverages as consumed.
Quantitative analysis of beverages prepared at home by staff of the Addiction Research Foundation revealed a lower and much more variable caffeine content of both tea and coffee than had been reported in earlier studies, most of which were based on analysis of laboratory-prepared beverages. Median caffeine concentration of 37 home-prepared samples of tea was 27 mg per cup (range, 8 to 91 mg); for 46 coffee samples the median concentration was 74 mg per cup (range, 29 to 176 mg). If tea and coffee as drunk contain less caffeine than generally supposed, the potency of caffeine may be greater than commonly realized, as may the relative caffeine content of certain commercial preparations, including chocolate and colas. The substantial variation in caffeine content emphasizes the need to establish actual caffeine intake in clinical, epidemiologic and experimental investigations of caffeine effects. (+info)
Teas and other beverages suppress D-galactosamine-induced liver injury in rats.
We compared the effects of various types of beverages (teas, coffee, and cocoa) on D-galactosamine-induced liver injury by measuring plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities in 7-wk-old male Wistar rats. The effects of five fractions extracted with different organic solvents from green tea, different types of dietary fibers, and some short chain fatty acids were also investigated. All of the beverages tested significantly suppressed D-galactosamine-induced enhancement of plasma enzyme activities when powdered beverages were added to the diet (30 g/kg) and fed to rats for 2 wk. Plasma ALT activities were 1155 +/- 82 [micromol/(min.L), control], 289 +/- 61 (green tea), 626 +/- 60 (roasted green tea), 471 +/- 84 (puerh tea), 676 +/- 69 (oolon tea), 423 +/- 76 (black tea), 829 +/- 53 (coffee), and 885 +/- 89 (cocoa). The profile of AST activities was similar. The caffeine-containing fraction from green tea had no significant effect, whereas the other four fractions, including the soluble fiber fraction, significantly suppressed liver injury. In addition to tea fibers, many other types of dietary fiber (hemicellulose, chitin, chitosan, alginate, pectin, guar gum, glucomannan, and inulin, but not cellulose) had liver injury-preventive effects when added to the diet (30 g/kg), suggesting that liver injury-prevention may be one of the general effects of dietary fibers. Of three short-chain fatty acids tested (acetate, propionate, and butyrate), only acetate prevented liver injury when added to the diet (15 g/kg), supporting the possibility that the liver injury-preventive effect of dietary fibers may be mediated at least in part by certain organic acids. These results suggest that several beverages possess preventive effects on certain types of liver injury, such as that induced by D-galactosamine, and that different constituents of high and low molecular weights contribute to the liver injury-preventive effects of green tea. (+info)
Implicit testing of odor memory: instances of positive and negative repetition priming.
The study provides a test and evaluation of a new repetition priming procedure designed to solve problems in investigating olfactory-specific priming. Although the results did not reveal any overall priming effect, a post-hoc analysis showed that incorrectly identified odors were more quickly processed than control odors, whereas correctly identified odors were processed more slowly These results are discussed and interpreted as instances of positive and negative repetition priming respectively. (+info)
An unusual structural motif of antimicrobial peptides containing end-to-end macrocycle and cystine-knot disulfides.
Four macrocyclic cystine-knot peptides of 29-31 residues, kalata, circulin A and B (CirA and CirB), and cyclopsychotride, have been isolated from coffee plants but have undetermined physiological functions. These macrocycles and 10 of their analogs prepared by chemical synthesis were tested against nine strains of microbes. Kalata and CirA were specific for the Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus with a minimum inhibition concentration of approximately 0.2 microM. They were relatively ineffective against Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, CirB and cyclopsychotride were active against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In particular, CirB showed potent activity against E. coli with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.41 microM. All four cyclic peptides were moderately active against two strains of fungi, Candida kefyr and Candida tropicalis, but were inactive against Candida albicans. These macrocycles are cytotoxic and lysed human red blood cell with a lethal dose 50% of 400 microM. Modifying the Arg residue in kalata with a keto aldehyde significantly reduced its activity against S. aureus whereas blocking the arg in CirA produced no significant effect. The two-disulfide variants and their scrambled disulfide isomers exhibited antimicrobial profiles and potency similar to their native peptides. However, in high-salt assays (100 mM NaCl), few of these macrocyclic peptides, natives or analogs, retained antimicrobial activity. These results show that the macrocyclic peptides possess specific and potent antimicrobial activity that is salt-dependent and that their initial interactions with the microbial surfaces may be electrostatic, an effect commonly found in defensin antimicrobial peptides. Furthermore, their end-to-end cyclic structure with a cystine-knot motif represents a molecular structure of antimicrobials and may provide a useful template for the design of novel peptide antibiotics. (+info)
A case of aldicarb poisoning: a possible murder attempt.
A couple showing signs of cholinergic crisis was admitted to the hospital. Analyses with high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry conducted on serum, urine, and stomach contents that were collected few hours after first symptoms showed the presence of aldicarb, which is the most potent carbamate insecticide on the market. A murder attempt was suspected because the patients showed the first signs some minutes after drinking coffee upon returning home and no commercial products containing aldicarb were found in the house. Because of the reversibility of inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, the patients recovered after treatment with atropine and toxogonin. They left the hospital after 12 days. To our knowledge, the serum concentrations of aldicarb reported in this paper are the highest reported for a nonfatal case. (+info)