Langerhans cells in the human oesophagus.
The dendrite cells of Langerhans, first identified in the epidermis, have now been observed in the middle and superficial layers of the normal human oesophageal mucosa. They exhibit typical Langerhans granules, but no desmosomes and tonofilaments. They often have irregular indented nuclei, with a relatively pale cytoplasm contrasting with that of the adjacent squamous cells. These cells are sometimes difficult to distinguish from intra-epithelial lymphocytes, which are also encountered in the oesophageal mucosa and which share certain ultrastructural characteristics with Langerhans cells. (+info)
Colonization of in vitro-formed cervical human papillomavirus- associated (pre)neoplastic lesions with dendritic cells: role of granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of CD1a+ Langerhans/dendritic cells (LCs/DCs) to infiltrate human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated (pre)neoplastic lesions of the uterine cervix. Migration of LCs/DCs in the presence of keratinocytes derived from normal cervix and HPV-transformed cell lines was evaluated in Boyden chambers and in organotypic cultures and correlated with granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) production by the cells, as determined by ELISA. Conditioned media of HPV-transformed keratinocytes contained lower amounts of GM-CSF and induced a decreased motile response of LCs/DCs in the Boyden chamber assay compared with those of normal cervical keratinocytes. The migration of LCs/DCs in the presence of conditioned media from normal keratinocytes could be blocked by an anti-GM-CSF antibody, and the migration of LCs/DCs in the presence of conditioned media from HPV-transformed keratinocytes could be increased by supplementing the media with recombinant GM-CSF. GM-CSF was also a potent factor in enhancing the colonization of LCs/DCs into organotypic cultures of HPV-transformed keratinocytes, as the infiltration of LCs/DCs in the in vitro-formed (pre)neoplastic epithelium was minimal under basal conditions and dramatically increased after the addition of GM-CSF to the cultures. These results suggest that GM-CSF could play an important role in the recruitment of LCs/DCs into the HPV-transformed (pre)neoplastic cervical epithelium and be useful as a new immunotherapeutic approach for cervical (pre)cancers. (+info)
In vivo UVA-1 and UVB irradiation differentially perturbs the antigen-presenting function of human epidermal Langerhans cells.
Ultraviolet B (UVB, 290-320 nm) radiation is known to suppress the immune function of epidermal Langerhans cells. We have recently described that in vitro UVB irradiation perturbs the antigen-presenting cell function of Langerhans cells by inhibiting their expression of functional B7 costimulatory molecules (B7-1, B7-2). The aim of this study was to determine wavelength-specific UV effects on Langerhans cells function in vivo, specifically UVB and UVA-1. To address this issue, volunteers were irradiated on the sun protected volar aspects of their forearms with 3 x minimal erythema dose of UVB (Philips TL-12) and UVA-1 (UVASUN 5000 Mutzhaas). Langerhans cells were isolated from suction blister roofs immediately following irradiation. Langerhans cells isolated from UVB- but not from UVA-1-irradiated skin failed to activate naive resting allogeneic T cells (mixed epidermal cell leukocyte reaction) or primed tetanus toxoid reactive autologous T cells. Langerhans cells isolated from sham-irradiated or UVA-1-irradiated skin strongly upregulated B7-2 molecules during short-term tissue culture. By contrast, Langerhans cells from UVB-irradiated skin did not upregulate B7-2 molecules. Furthermore, exogenous stimulation of the B7 pathway by anti-CD28 stimulatory monoclonal antibodies restored the capacity of UVB-irradiated Langerhans cells to activate both alloreactive and tetanus toxoid-reactive T cells, implying suppressed antigen-presenting cell activities and perturbed B7 expression of Langerhans cells isolated from UVB-irradiated skin are related. Those studies demonstrate that in vivo UVB, but not UVA-1, interferes with the activation-dependent upregulation of B7 molecules on Langerhans cells, which in turn is of functional relevance for the perturbed antigen-presenting cell function of Langerhans cells within UVB- but not UVA-1-irradiated skin. (+info)
T cell-tropic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and simian-human immunodeficiency viruses are readily transmitted by vaginal inoculation of rhesus macaques, and Langerhans' cells of the female genital tract are infected with SIV.
Intravaginal inoculation with T cell-tropic molecular clones of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) or simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) or some dual-tropic strains of SIV or SHIV produced systemic infection in rhesus macaques. Vaginal inoculation with other dual-tropic molecular clones of SIV or SHIV did not infect rhesus macaques even after multiple inoculations. While in vitro measures of macrophage tropism do not predict which primate lentiviruses will produce systemic infection after intravaginal inoculation, the level to which a virus replicates in vivo after intravenous inoculation does predict the outcome of intravaginal inoculation. Another series of studies, using combined in situ hybridization and immunolabeling to simultaneously detect SIV RNA and identify the immunophenotype of infected cells, demonstrated that a large proportion (approximately 40% in some animals) of the SIV-infected cells in the vagina and cervix were Langerhans' cells. This is the first in vivo demonstration that Langerhans' cells in the genital tract are infected with SIV and that dendritic cells are significant reservoirs for lentiviruses. (+info)
A substance p agonist acts as an adjuvant to promote hapten-specific skin immunity.
Because substance p (SP) has been reported to be released from cutaneous sensory nerve endings after hapten application, we determined whether SP participates in contact hypersensitivity (CH) induction by using a SP agonist, GR73632 or delta-Aminovaleryl [Pro9, N-Me-Leu10]-substance P(7-11) and a SP antagonist, spantide I. When injected intradermally, SP agonist enhanced CH induced by conventional, but not optimal, sensitizing doses of hapten. By contrast, SP antagonist inhibited the induction of CH by optimal sensitizing doses of hapten. Moreover, SP agonist promoted CH induction and prevented tolerance when hapten was painted on skin exposed to acute, low-dose ultraviolet-B radiation. Intradermally injected SP agonist altered neither the density nor the morphology of epidermal Langerhans cells, implying that SP agonist enhanced the generation of hapten-specific immunogenic signals from the dermis. It is proposed that SP is a natural "adjuvant" that promotes the induction of CH within normal skin. Although exogenous SP agonist can prevent impaired CH and tolerance after ultraviolet-B radiation, the susceptibility of native SP to local neuropeptidases renders the neuropeptide unable to prevent the deleterious effects of ultraviolet-B radiation on cutaneous immunity. (+info)
Langerhans cells (LC) belong to the dendritic cell family and mediate Ag presentation in the cornea and ocular surface. Under normal physiological conditions, the central cornea is devoid of LC. Centripetal migration of LC plays a critical role in promoting immunoinflammatory responses in the eye including allograft rejection and herpetic keratitis. The molecular mechanisms responsible for ocular LC migration are poorly understood. To examine whether TNF-alpha mediates corneal LC migration and to establish the interaction of IL-1 and TNF-alpha in regulating LC migratory capacity, we utilized gene-targeted knockout mice lacking IL-1 receptor I (IL-1RI-/-), TNF receptor I (p55-/-), TNF receptor II (p75-/-), or both (p55-/-p75-/-). LC migration was induced by thermal cautery or cytokine injection and enumerated by an immunofluorescence assay. Migration of LC after cauterization and TNF-alpha injection was significantly depressed in both p55-/- and p75-/- mice. Similarly, in the first 72 h after intracorneal injection of IL-1alpha, LC migration was reduced in p55-/-, p75-/-, and p55-/-p75-/- mice. In contrast, injection of TNF-alpha in IL-1RI-/- mice led to normal migration of corneal LC indistinguishable from wild-type controls. These results suggest that the IL-1 induction of corneal LC migration is largely mediated by TNFR function, whereas TNF-alpha induction of LC migration is independent of IL-1RI activity. Moreover, the data suggest that both p55 and p75 signaling pathways are important in mediating LC migration in the cornea. (+info)
TGF-beta 1 prevents the noncognate maturation of human dendritic Langerhans cells.
TGF-beta 1 is critical for differentiation of epithelial-associated dendritic Langerhans cells (LC). In accordance with the characteristics of in vivo LC, we show that LC obtained from human monocytes in vitro in the presence of TGF-beta 1 1) express almost exclusively intracellular class II Ags, low CD80, and no CD83 and CD86 Ags and 2) down-regulate TNF-RI (p55) and do not produce IL-10 after stimulation, in contrast to dermal dendritic cells and monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Surprisingly, while LC exhibit E-cadherin down-regulation upon exposure to TNF-alpha and IL-1, TGF-beta 1 prevents the final LC maturation in response to TNF-alpha, IL-1, and LPS with respect to Class II CD80, CD86, and CD83 Ag expression, loss of FITC-dextran uptake, production of IL-12, and Ag presentation. In sharp contrast, CD40 ligand cognate signal induces full maturation of LC and is not inhibited by TGF-beta 1. The presence of emigrated immature LCs in human reactive skin-draining lymph nodes provides in vivo evidence that LC migration and final maturation may be differentially regulated. Therefore, due to the effects of TGF-beta 1, inflammatory stimuli may not be sufficient to induce full maturation of LC, thus avoiding potentially harmful immune responses. We conclude that TGF-beta 1 appears to be responsible for both the acquisition of LC phenotype, cytokine production pattern, and prevention of noncognate maturation. (+info)
The antigen-presenting environment in normal and human papillomavirus (HPV)-related premalignant cervical epithelium.
The activation of HPV-specific T cells within the cervical microenvironment is likely to play an important part in the natural history of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). The extent and the type of T cell activation will depend critically on the expression of MHC, costimulatory cell surface molecules and cytokines by keratinocytes and Langerhans cells within the cervical lesion. Expression of MHC class II (HLA-A-DR and -DQ), costimulatory/adhesion molecules (CD11a/18, CD50, CD54, CD58 and CD86) and cytokines (tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and IL-10) was therefore investigated by immunohistochemistry in normal squamous epithelium (n = 12), low-grade (n = 23) and high-grade (n = 18) squamous intraepithelial lesions of the cervix. CIN progression was associated with de novo expression of HLA-DR and CD54, and increased expression of CD58 by keratinocytes. However, significantly, there was no expression of any adhesion/costimulation molecule by epithelial Langerhans cells in any cervical biopsy studied. Furthermore, TNF-alpha, a potent activator of Langerhans cells, was expressed constitutively by basal keratinocytes in normal cervix (12+/12). but expression of this cytokine was absent in a number of CIN samples (20+/23 for low-grade, 12+/18 for high-grade CIN). Conversely, the suppressive cytokine IL-10 was absent in normal epithelium (0+/12), but was up-regulated in a number of CIN lesions (12+/23 for low-grade; 8+/18 for high-grade CIN). The restricted expression of costimulation/adhesion molecules and the nature of the cytokine microenvironment within the epithelium may act to limit effective immune responses in some CIN lesions. (+info)