Marker effects on reversion of T4rII mutants.
The frequencies of 2-aminopurine- and 5-bromouracil-induced A:T leads to G:C transitions were compared at nonsense sites throughout the rII region of bacteriophage T4. These frequencies are influenced both by adjacent base pairs within the nonsense codons and by extracodonic factors. Following 2AP treatment, they are high in amber (UAG) and lower in opal (UGA) codons than in allelic ochre (UAA) codons. In general, 5BU-induced transitions are more frequent in both amber and opal codons than in the allelic ochre codons. 2AP- and 5BU-induced transition frequencies in the first and third positions of opal codons are correlated with those in the corresponding positions of the allelic ochre codons. Similarly, the frequencies of 2AP-induced transition in the first and second positions of amber codons and their ochre alleles are correlated. However, there is little correlation between the frequencies of 5BU-induced transitions in the first and second positions of allelic amber and ochre codons. (+info
Prediction of in vivo drug-drug interactions based on mechanism-based inhibition from in vitro data: inhibition of 5-fluorouracil metabolism by (E)-5-(2-Bromovinyl)uracil.
The fatal drug-drug interaction between sorivudine, an antiviral drug, and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) has been shown to be caused by a mechanism-based inhibition. In this interaction, sorivudine is converted by gut flora to (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)uracil (BVU), which is metabolically activated by dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), and the activated BVU irreversibly binds to DPD itself, thereby inactivating it. In an attempt to predict this interaction in vivo from in vitro data, inhibition of 5-FU metabolism by BVU was investigated by using rat and human hepatic cytosol and human recombinant DPD. Whichever enzyme was used, increased inhibition was observed that depended on the preincubation time of BVU and enzyme in the presence of NADPH and BVU concentration. The kinetic parameters obtained for inactivation represented by k(inact) and K'(app) were 2.05 +/- 1.52 min(-1), 69.2 +/- 60.8 microM (rat hepatic cytosol), 2.39 +/- 0.13 min(-1), 48.6 +/- 11.8 microM (human hepatic cytosol), and 0.574 +/- 0.121 min(-1), 2.20 +/- 0.57 microM (human recombinant DPD). The drug-drug interaction in vivo was predicted quantitatively based on a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model, using pharmacokinetic parameters obtained from the literature and kinetic parameters for the enzyme inactivation obtained in the in vitro studies. In rats, DPD was predicted to be completely inactivated by administration of BVU and the area under the curve of 5-FU was predicted to increase 11-fold, which agreed well with the reported data. In humans, a 5-fold increase in the area under the curve of 5-FU was predicted after administration of sorivudine, 150 mg/day for 5 days. Mechanism-based inhibition of drug metabolism is supposed to be very dangerous. We propose that such in vitro studies should be carried out during the drug-developing phase so that in vivo drug-drug interactions can be predicted. (+info
Mechanism-based inactivation of human dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase by (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)uracil in the presence of NADPH.
Purified recombinant human dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (hDPD) was incubated with (14)C-labeled (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)uracil ([(14)C]BVU) in the presence of NADPH to investigate a possible mechanism in the 18 patient deaths caused by interactions of 5-fluorouracil prodrugs with the new oral antiviral drug, sorivudine. BVU is formed from sorivudine by gut flora and absorbed through intestinal membrane. hDPD, a rate-limiting enzyme for the catabolism of 5-fluorouracil and endogenous pyrimidines in the human, was NADPH dependently radiolabeled and inactivated by [(14)C]BVU. Two radioactive tryptic fragments, I and II, isolated from radiolabeled hDPD were found by complete amino acid sequencing to originate from a common regional amino acid sequence located at positions 656 (Lys) to 678 (Arg) for I and positions 657 (Ser) to 678 (Arg) for II. However, only Cys(671), which should be present in the peptides, was not identified by amino acid sequencing. Mass spectrometric analysis of the tryptic fragments indicated that the sulfhydryl group of Cys(671) in the hDPD was modified with 5, 6-dihydro-5-(2-bromoethylydenyl)uracil (BEDU), a putative allyl bromide type of reactive molecule, to form a sulfide bond with loss of hydrogen bromide. The Cys(671) sulfide bearing the debrominated BEDU had a 5,6-dihydrouracil ring highly strained by the exocyclic double bond at the 5-position, so that it underwent facile hydrolytic ring fission with alkali and heated acid treatments. A new proposal is also made for the amino acid sequence of the pyrimidine-binding domain, including Cys(671), of DPD in the human and other species. (+info
Determination of selected herbicides and phenols in water and soils by solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography.
A high-performance liquid chromatography procedure or the determination of the herbicides simazine, propazine, bromacil, metoxuron, and hexazinone is elaborated. Stationary phases RP8 and RP18 and mixtures of methanol-water (2:1 and 1:1, v/v) as a mobile phase are applied for this purpose. The conditions for solid-phase extraction are established, allowing the separation of phenols and herbicides in their mixtures and the extraction of phenols (from river and coke plant water) and herbicides (from the soil samples). (+info
Kinetic analysis of novel multisubstrate analogue inhibitors of thymidine phosphorylase.
A kinetic analysis was performed for the novel 1-(8-phosphonooctyl)-6-amino-5-bromouracil and 1-(8-phosphonooctyl)-7-deazaxanthine inhibitors of Escherichia coli thymidine (dThd) phosphorylase (TPase). The structure of the compounds was rationally designed based on the available crystal structure coordinates of bacterial TPase. These inhibitors reversibly inhibited TPase. Kinetic analysis revealed that the compounds inhibited TPase in a purely competitive or mixed fashion not only when dThd, but also when inorganic phosphate (Pi), was used as the variable substrate. In contrast, the free bases 6-amino-5-bromouracil and 7-deazaxanthine behaved as non-competitive inhibitors of the enzyme in the presence of variable Pi concentrations while being competitive or mixed with respect to thymine as the natural substrate. Our kinetic data thus revealed that the novel 1-(8-phosphonooctyl)pyrimidine/purine derivatives are able to function as multisubstrate inhibitors of TPase, interfering at two different sites (dThd(Thy)- and phosphate-binding site) of the enzyme. To our knowledge, the described compounds represent the first type of such multisubstrate analogue inhibitors of TPase; they should be considered as lead compounds for the development of mechanistically novel type of TPase inhibitors. (+info
Production of brominating intermediates by myeloperoxidase. A transhalogenation pathway for generating mutagenic nucleobases during inflammation.
The existence of interhalogen compounds was proposed more than a century ago, but no biological roles have been attributed to these highly oxidizing intermediates. In this study, we determined whether the peroxidases of white blood cells can generate the interhalogen gas bromine chloride (BrCl). Myeloperoxidase, the heme enzyme secreted by activated neutrophils and monocytes, uses H2O2 and Cl(-) to produce HOCl, a chlorinating intermediate. In contrast, eosinophil peroxidase preferentially converts Br(-) to HOBr. Remarkably, both myeloperoxidase and eosinophil peroxidase were able to brominate deoxycytidine, a nucleoside, and uracil, a nucleobase, at plasma concentrations of Br(-) (100 microM) and Cl(-) (100 mM). The two enzymes used different reaction pathways, however. When HOCl brominated deoxycytidine, the reaction required Br(-) and was inhibited by taurine. In contrast, bromination by HOBr was independent of Br(-) and unaffected by taurine. Moreover, taurine inhibited 5-bromodeoxycytidine production by the myeloperoxidase-H2O2-Cl(-)- Br(-) system but not by the eosinophil peroxidase-H2O2-Cl(-)-Br(-) system, indicating that bromination by myeloperoxidase involves the initial production of HOCl. Both HOCl-Br(-) and the myeloperoxidase-H2O2-Cl(-)-Br(-) system generated a gas that converted cyclohexene into 1-bromo-2-chlorocyclohexane, implicating BrCl in the reaction. Moreover, human neutrophils used myeloperoxidase, H2O2, and Br(-) to brominate deoxycytidine by a taurine-sensitive pathway, suggesting that transhalogenation reactions may be physiologically relevant. 5-Bromouracil incorporated into nuclear DNA is a well known mutagen. Our observations therefore raise the possibility that transhalogenation reactions initiated by phagocytes provide one pathway for mutagenesis and cytotoxicity at sites of inflammation. (+info
Structural basis of pyrimidine specificity in the MS2 RNA hairpin-coat-protein complex.
We have determined the X-ray structures of six MS2 RNA hairpin-coat-protein complexes having five different substitutions at the hairpin loop base -5. This is a uracil in the wild-type hairpin and contacts the coat protein both by stacking on to a tyrosine side chain and by hydrogen bonding to an asparagine side chain. The RNA consensus sequence derived from coat protein binding studies with natural sequence variants suggested that the -5 base needs to be a pyrimidine for strong binding. The five -5 substituents used in this study were 5-bromouracil, pyrimidin-2-one, 2-thiouracil, adenine, and guanine. The structure of the 5-bromouracil complex was determined to 2.2 A resolution, which is the highest to date for any MS2 RNA-protein complex. All the complexes presented here show very similar conformations, despite variation in affinity in solution. The results suggest that the stacking of the -5 base on to the tyrosine side chain is the most important driving force for complex formation. A number of hydrogen bonds that are present in the wild-type complex are not crucial for binding, as they are missing in one or more of the complexes. The results also reveal the flexibility of this RNA-protein interface, with respect to functional group variation, and may be generally applicable to other RNA-protein complexes. (+info
Inhibitor effects during the cell cycle in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Determination of transition points in asynchronous cultures.
A wide variety of inhibitors (drugs, antibiotics, and antimetabolites) will block cell division within an ongoing cell cycle in autotrophic cultures of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. To determine when during the cell cycle a given inhibitor is effective in preventing cell division, a technique is described which does not rely on the use of synchronous cultures. The technique permits the measurement of transition points, the cell cycle stage at which the subsequent cell division becomes insensitive to the effects of an inhibitor. A map of transition points in the cell cycle reveals that they are grouped into two broad periods, the second and fourth quarters. In general, inhibitors which block organellar DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis have second-quarter transition points, while those which inhibit nuclear cytoplasmic macromolecular synthesis have fourth-quarter transition points. The specific grouping of these transition points into two periods suggests that the synthesis of organellar components is completed midway through the cell cycle and that the synthesis of nonorganellar components required for cell division is not completed until late in the cell cycle. (+info