Functional expression of Cf9 and Avr9 genes in Brassica napus induces enhanced resistance to Leptosphaeria maculans.
The tomato Cf9 resistance gene induces an Avr9-dependent hypersensitive response (HR) in tomato and transgenic Solanaceae spp. We studied whether the Cf9 gene product responded functionally to the corresponding Avr9 gene product when introduced in a heterologous plant species. We successfully expressed the Cf9 gene under control of its own promoter and the Avr9 or Avr9R8K genes under control of the p35S1 promoter in transgenic oilseed rape. We demonstrated that the transgenic oilseed rape plants produced the Avr9 elicitor with the same specific necrosis-inducing activity as reported for Cladosporium fulvum. An Avr9-dependent HR was induced in Cf9 oilseed rape upon injection of intercellular fluid containing Avr9. We showed Avr9-specific induction of PR1, PR2, and Cxc750 defense genes in oilseed rape expressing CJ9. Cf9 x Avr9 oilseed rape did not result in seedling death of the F1 progeny, independent of the promoters used to express the genes. The F1 (Cf9 x Avr9) plants, however, were quantitatively more resistant to Leptosphaeria maculans. Phytopathological analyses revealed that disease development of L. maculans was delayed when the pathogen was applied on an Avr9-mediated HR site. We demonstrate that the CJ9 and Avr9 gene can be functionally expressed in a heterologous plant species and that the two components confer an increase in disease resistance. (+info)
Characterization of a functional soluble form of a Brassica napus membrane-anchored endo-1,4-beta-glucanase heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris.
The Brassica napus gene, Cel16, encodes a membrane-anchored endo-1,4-beta-glucanase with a deduced molecular mass of 69 kD. As for other membrane-anchored endo-1,4-beta-glucanases, Cel16 consists of a predicted intracellular, charged N terminus (methionine(1)-lysine(70)), a hydrophobic transmembrane domain (isoleucine(71)-valine(93)), and a periplasmic catalytic core (lysine(94)-proline(621)). Here, we report the functional analysis of Delta(1-90)Cel16, the N terminally truncated Cel16, missing residues 1 through 90 and comprising the catalytic domain of Cel16 expressed recombinantly in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris as a soluble protein. A two-step purification protocol yielded Delta(1-90)Cel16 in a pure form. The molecular mass of Delta(1-90)Cel16, when determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, was about 130 kD and about 60 kD after enzymatic removal of N-glycans, fitting the expected molecular mass of 59 kD. Delta(1-90)Cel16 was highly N glycosylated as compared with the native B. napus Cel16 protein. Delta(1-90)Cel16 had a pH optimum of 6.0. The activity of Delta(1-90)Cel16 was inhibited by EDTA and exhibited a strong dependence on calcium. Delta(1-90)Cel16 showed substrate specificity for low substituted carboxymethyl-cellulose and amorphous cellulose. It did not hydrolyze crystalline cellulose, xyloglycan, xylan, (1-->3),(1-->4)-beta-D-glucan, the highly substituted hydroxyethylcellulose, or the oligosaccharides cellotriose, cellotetraose, cellopentaose, or xylopentaose. Size exclusion analysis of Delta(1-90)Cel16-hydrolyzed carboxymethylcellulose showed that Delta(1-90)Cel16 is a true endo-acting glucanase. (+info)
Multidrug resistance-like genes of Arabidopsis required for auxin transport and auxin-mediated development.
Arabidopsis possesses several genes related to the multidrug resistance (MDR) genes of animals, one of which, AtMDR1, was shown to be induced by the hormone auxin. Plants having mutations in AtMDR1 or its closest relative, AtPGP1, were isolated by a reverse genetic strategy. Auxin transport activity was greatly impaired in atmdr1 and atmdr1 atpgp1 double mutant plants. Epinastic cotyledons and reduced apical dominance were mutant phenotypes consistent with the disrupted basipetal flow of auxin. The auxin transport inhibitor 1-naphthylphthalamic acid was shown to bind tightly and specifically to AtMDR1 and AtPGP1 proteins. The results indicate that these two MDR-like genes of Arabidopsis encode 1-naphthylphthalamic acid binding proteins that are required for normal auxin distribution and auxin-mediated development. (+info)
Different myrosinase and idioblast distribution in Arabidopsis and Brassica napus.
Myrosinase (EC 188.8.131.52) is a glucosinolate-degrading enzyme mainly found in special idioblasts, myrosin cells, in Brassicaceae. This two-component system of secondary products and degradative enzymes is important in plant-insect interactions. Immunocytochemical analysis of Arabidopsis localized myrosinase exclusively to myrosin cells in the phloem parenchyma, whereas no myrosin cells were detected in the ground tissue. In Brassica napus, myrosinase could be detected in myrosin cells both in the phloem parenchyma and in the ground tissue. The myrosin cells were similar in Arabidopsis and B. napus and were found to be different from the companion cells and the glucosinolate-containing S-cells present in Arabidopsis. Confocal laser scanning immunomicroscopy analysis of myrosin cells in B. napus embryos showed that the myrosin grains constitute a continuous reticular system in the cell. These findings indicate that in the two species studied, initial cells creating the ground tissue have different potential for making idioblasts and suggest that the myrosinase-glucosinolate system has at least partly different functions. Several myrosinases in B. napus extracts are recovered in complex together with myrosinase-binding protein (MBP), and the localization of MBP was therefore studied in situ. The expression of MBP was highest in germinating seedlings of B. napus and was found in every cell except the myrosin cells of the ground tissue. Rapid disappearance of the MBP from the non-myrosin cells and emergence of MBP in the myrosin cells resulted in an apparent colocalization of MBP and myrosinase in 7-d-old seedlings. (+info)
Comparison of turnip crinkle virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase preparations expressed in Escherichia coli or derived from infected plants.
Turnip crinkle virus (TCV) is a small, plus-sense, single-stranded RNA virus of plants. A virus-coded protein, p88, which is required for replication has been expressed and purified from Escherichia coli. In vitro assays revealed that the recombinant p88 has an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) activity and can also bind to RNA. Deletion of the N-terminal region in p88 resulted in a more active RdRp, while further deletions abolished RdRp activity. Comparison of the E. coli-expressed p88, the N-terminal deletion mutant of p88, and a TCV RdRp preparation obtained from infected plants revealed that these preparations show remarkable similarities in RNA template recognition and usage. Both the recombinant and the plant TCV RdRp preparations are capable of de novo initiation on both plus- and minus-strand satC and satD templates, which are small parasitic RNAs associated with TCV infections. In addition, these RdRp preparations can efficiently recognize the related Tomato bushy stunt virus promoter sequences, including the minus- and plus-strand initiation promoters. Heterologous viral and artificial promoters are recognized poorly by the recombinant and the plant TCV RdRps. Further comparison of the single-component recombinant TCV RdRp and the multicomponent plant TCV RdRp will help dissect the functions of various components of the TCV replicase. (+info)
Nitrogen storage and remobilization in Brassica napus L. during the growth cycle: identification, characterization and immunolocalization of a putative taproot storage glycoprotein.
In taproot of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), a 23 kDa polypeptide has been recently identified as a putative vegetative storage protein (VSP) because of its accumulation during flowering and its specific mobilization to sustain grain filling when N uptake is strongly reduced. The objectives were to characterize this protein more precisely and to study the effect of environmental factors (N availability, daylength, temperature, water deficit, wounding) or endogenous signals (methyl jasmonate, abscisic acid) that might change the N source/sink relationships within the plant, and may therefore trigger its accumulation. The 23 kDa putative VSP has two isoforms, is glycosylated and both isoforms share the same N-terminal sequence which had been used to produce specific polyclonal antibodies. Low levels of an immunoreactive protein of 24 kDa were found in leaves and flowers. In taproot, the 23 kDa putative VSP seems to accumulate only in the vacuoles of peripheral cortical parenchyma cells, around the phloem vessels. Among all treatments tested, the accumulation of this protein could only be induced by abscisic acid and methyl jasmonate. When compared to control plants, application of methyl jasmonate reduced N uptake by 89% after 15 d, induced a strong remobilization of N from senescing leaves and a concomitant accumulation of the 23 kDa putative VSP. These results suggested that, in rape, the 23 kDa protein is used as a storage buffer between N losses from senescing leaves promoted by methyl jasmonate and grain filling. (+info)
Functional significance of the alternative transcript processing of the Arabidopsis floral promoter FCA.
The Arabidopsis gene FCA encodes an RNA binding protein that functions to promote the floral transition. The FCA transcript is alternatively processed to yield four transcripts, the most abundant of which is polyadenylated within intron 3. We have analyzed the role of the alternative processing on the floral transition. The introduction of FCA intronless transgenes resulted in increased FCA protein levels and accelerated flowering, but no role in flowering was found for products of the shorter transcripts. The consequences of the alternative processing on the FCA expression pattern were determined using a series of translational FCA-beta-glucuronidase fusions. The inclusion of FCA genomic sequence containing the alternatively processed intron 3 restricted the expression of the transgene predominantly to shoot and root apices and young flower buds. Expression of this fusion also was delayed developmentally. Therefore, the alternative processing of the FCA transcript limits, both spatially and temporally, the amount of functional FCA protein. Expression in roots prompted an analysis of root development, which indicated that FCA functions more generally than in the control of the floral transition. (+info)
Nitrogen storage and remobilization in Brassica napus L. during the growth cycle: effects of methyl jasmonate on nitrate uptake, senescence, growth, and VSP accumulation.
The role of methyl jasmonate (MeJa) in promoting senescence has been described previously in many species, but it has been questioned in monocarpic species whether induced senescence is a result of a potential death hormone like MeJa, or a consequence of an increased metabolic drain resulting from the growth of reproductive tissue. In oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), a polypeptide of 23 kDa has been recently identified as a putative vegetative storage protein (VSP). This polypeptide could be used as a storage buffer between N losses from senescing leaves putatively promoted by methyl jasmonate that might be produced by flowers, and grain filling which occurs later on, while N uptake is strongly reduced. In order to describe causal relationships during Brassica napus L. plant responses to MeJa treatment, a kinetic experiment was performed to determine the order and the amplitude with which general processes such as growth, photosynthesis, chlorophyll content, N uptake, and N storage under the form of the 23 kDa VSP are affected. One of the most immediate consequences of MeJa treatment was the strong reduction of nitrate uptake within 6 h, relative to control plants. However, this was not a specific effect as K(+) uptake was similarly affected. Photosynthesis was reduced later (after 24 h), while chlorophyll content as well as leaf growth also decreased in a similar way. Moreover, this was concomitant with a remobilization of endogenous unlabelled N from senescing leaves to roots. Accumulation of the 23 kDa VSP was induced in the taproot after 24 h of MeJa treatment and was increased 10-fold within 8 d. On the other hand, the reversible effect of a MeJa pretreatment was tested in the long term (i.e. along the growth cycle) using plants previously grown in field conditions induced for flowering. Results show that a MeJa pulse induced a reversible effect on N uptake inhibition. In parallel, protein immunologically related to the 23 kDa VSP was detected in stems with a similar molecular weight (23 kDa), and in flowers and leaves with a molecular weight of 24 kDa. This accumulation was concomitant with the remobilization of both subunits of Rubisco. During stem and pod development, this protein induced by MeJa is fully hydrolysed. The external and intermittent supply of MeJa mimic some of the plant physiological processes previously reported under natural conditions. This suggests that in oilseed rape, methyl jasmonate could be considered as a possible monocarpic senescence factor while accumulation/mobilization of the 23 kDa VSP in taproot could be a marker for the cessation of N uptake and the initiation of a massive leaf senescence. (+info)