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ADP-ribose polymers localized on Ctcf-Parp1-Dnmt1 complex prevent methylation of Ctcf target sites
PARylation [poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation] is involved in the maintenance of genomic methylation patterns through its control of Dnmt1 [DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 1] activity. Our previous findings indicated that Ctcf (CCCTC-binding factor) may be an important player in key events whereby PARylation controls the unmethylated status of some CpG-rich regions. Ctcf is able to activate Parp1 [poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1], which ADP-ribosylates itself and, in turn, inhibits DNA methylation via non-covalent interaction between its ADP-ribose polymers and Dnmt1. By such a mechanism, Ctcf may preserve the epigenetic pattern at promoters of important housekeeping genes. The results of the present study showed Dnmt1 as a new protein partner of Ctcf. Moreover, we show that Ctcf forms a complex with Dnmt1 and PARylated Parp1 at specific Ctcf target sequences and that PARylation is responsible for the maintenance of the unmethylated status of some Ctcf-bound CpGs. We suggest a mechanism by which Parp1, ...