Use of SoloShot autodestruct syringes compared with disposable syringes, in a national immunization campaign in Indonesia. (1/321)

Autodestruct syringes can reduce the improper reuse of syringes, which present a significant risk in the transmission of bloodborne pathogens in developing countries, especially during immunization campaigns owing to the high number of injections given per session. SoloShot is an autodestruct syringe, distributed by UNICEF, which has been shown to be safer and easier to use than standard syringes. This study analyses the accuracy and dose-efficiency of SoloShot, compared with disposable syringes, during a national tetanus toxoid immunization campaign on the Indonesian island of Lombok. Observation and dose measurements revealed that SoloShot syringes delivered more precise and consistent doses and 15% more doses per vial than disposable syringes. Vaccine savings may partially be offset by the higher price of SoloShot. Vaccinators preferred SoloShot, describing it as easier to use, faster, and more accurate than the disposable syringe. The study indicates that SoloShot is highly appropriate for use in immunization campaigns by reducing vaccine wastage and improving injection safety.  (+info)

A source of experimental underestimation of aerosol bolus deposition. (2/321)

We examined the measurement error in inhaled and exhaled aerosol concentration resulting from the bolus delivery system when small volumes of monodisperse aerosols are inspired to different lung depths. A laser photometer that illuminated approximately 75% of the breathing path cross section recorded low inhaled bolus half-widths (42 ml) and negative deposition values for shallow bolus inhalation when the inhalation path of a 60-ml aerosol was straight and unobstructed. We attributed these results to incomplete mixing of the inhaled aerosol bolus over the breathing path cross section, on the basis of simultaneous recordings of the photometer with a particle-counter sampling from either the center or the edge of the breathing path. Inserting a 90 degrees bend into the inhaled bolus path increased the photometer measurement of inhaled bolus half-width to 57 ml and yielded positive deposition values. Dispersion, which is predominantly affected by exhaled bolus half-width, was not significantly altered by the 90 degrees bend. We conclude that aerosol bolus-delivery systems should ensure adequate mixing of the inhaled bolus to avoid error in measurement of bolus deposition.  (+info)

Home delivery of heat-stable vaccines in Indonesia: outreach immunization with a prefilled, single-use injection device. (3/321)

Extending immunization coverage to underserved populations will require innovative immunization strategies. This study evaluated one such strategy: the use of a prefilled, single-use injection device for outreach immunization by village midwives. The device, UniJect, is designed to prevent refilling or reuse. Stored at ambient temperatures for up to 1 month in midwives' homes, vaccine-filled UniJect devices were immediately available for outreach. Between July 1995 and April 1996, 110 midwives on the Indonesia islands of Lombok and Bali visited the homes of newborn infants to deliver hepatitis B vaccine to the infants and tetanus toxoid to their mothers. Observations and interviews showed that the midwives used the device properly and safely to administer approximately 10,000 sterile injections in home settings. There were no problems with excessive heat exposure during the storage or delivery of vaccine. Injection recipients and midwives expressed a strong preference for the UniJect device over a standard syringe. Use of the prefilled device outside the cold chain simplified the logistics and facilitated the speed and efficiency of home visits, while the single-dose format minimized vaccine wastage.  (+info)

Accuracy of pen injectors versus insulin syringes in children with type 1 diabetes. (4/321)

OBJECTIVE: To compare the accuracy and precision of insulin syringes and pen devices used by children with type 1 diabetes and their parents. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: There were 48 subjects (32 patients, a parent of an additional 16 patients) instructed to measure out morning insulin doses three times from vials and/or cartridges containing saline mixed with small amounts of [14C]glucose (solution used as regular insulin) and [3H]glucose (solution used as NPH insulin) and to dispense the contents into a scintillation vial. Statistical analysis was used to determine the accuracy and precision of both methods of insulin delivery. RESULTS: The absolute error in measuring out doses of regular insulin < 5 U was greater with insulin syringes compared with pen injection devices (9.9 +/- 2.4 vs. 4.9 +/- 1.6%, respectively). Both were comparable for regular insulin doses > 5 U (3.2 +/- 0.6 vs. 2.2 +/- 0.4% for syringes and pens, respectively). The accuracy in drawing up NPH doses was similar for low and high insulin doses (mean percent error of 7.5 +/- 1.5 vs. 5.6 +/- 1.1%). CONCLUSIONS: Pen devices are more accurate than insulin syringes in measuring out insulin at low insulin doses. The accuracy of insulin syringes improves when higher doses of regular insulin are measured out and becomes comparable to pen devices.  (+info)

Bioequivalence of subcutaneous injections of recombinant human follicle stimulating hormone (Puregon(R)) by Pen-injector and syringe. (5/321)

A randomized, single-centre, cross-over study was designed to compare the bioavailability of two pharmaceutical formulations of recombinant human follicle stimulating hormone (recFSH; Puregon(R)): (i) a dissolved cake injected by a normal syringe; and (ii) a ready-for-use solution injected using a device referred to as Puregon(R)Pen. Twenty-two healthy female volunteers underwent one of two administration sequences: Puregon(R)Pen/syringe or syringe/Puregon(R)Pen, by which they received a single subcutaneous dose of recFSH (150 IU). Endogenous gonadotrophin production had been previously suppressed using an oral contraceptive (Lyndiol(R)). Pharmacokinetic parameters characterizing rate [peak concentration (Cmax) and time of peak concentration (tmax)] and extent [area under the curve (AUC) and clearance (CL)] of absorption were obtained from 20 subjects. After injection with both formulations, serum FSH concentrations reached a peak of 3.4 IU/l at 13 h after injection. The elimination half-life was approximately 34 h, irrespective of formulation. A difference of approximately 18% was found between serum FSH concentrations obtained using the two formulations, which was caused by differences between the anticipated and the actual volume injected with the normal syringe. After correction for injection losses by weighing the amount injected with a normal syringe, the two formulations were found to be bioequivalent with respect to Cmax, AUC and CL. For tmax, bioequivalence could not be proven due to high intra-subject variability and broad absorption peaks of FSH. Both methods were well tolerated, local reactions being generally mild and short-lived.  (+info)

The role of syringe filters in harm reduction among injection drug users. (6/321)

OBJECTIVES: Three filters were tested for in situ efficacy in reducing bacterial contamination associated with injection drug use. METHODS: In a self-matched control design with blinded laboratory testing, injection drug users were asked to use 3 filters in random succession when loading their syringes with drug solute. RESULTS: The 0.22-micron filter proved significantly better than both the cigarette filter (relative risk [RR] = 18.0) and the 20-micron filter (RR = 4.5) in rendering syringes bacteria-free. CONCLUSIONS: The 15- to 20-micron syringe filter currently provided injection drug users in Switzerland does not significantly reduce contamination associated with common bacterial infections among users. Filters with pore width 1/100th as large are recommended.  (+info)

Comparison of four 1-mL syringes for administering first-pass radionuclide angiography doses. (7/321)

OBJECTIVE: For optimal imaging in first-pass radionuclide angiography (FPRNA) studies, 1.11 GBq (30 mCi) 99mTc-sestamibi doses are drawn up in volumes of 0.1-0.3 mL. A single bolus injection of this small volume is important to obtain accurate time-activity curves. Because of the small volume and concentrated radioactivity, it is undesirable for study effectiveness and image quality to have a significant amount of residual activity remaining in the syringe after injection. The purpose of this study was to compare the amount of residual activity in 4 different 1-mL syringes. METHODS: Each test syringe (n = 20) was filled with a volume (0.2 mL) of approximately 1.11 GBq (approximately 30 mCi) 99mTc-sestamibi. Initial activity was measured, and the dose was injected back into a vial only once, simulating bolus injection into a patient. The remaining activity was measured, followed by the calculation of percent residual activity. RESULTS: The two 25-G x 5/8-in. permanent needles had a low percent of residual activity, as well as a much sturdier needle for injection. However, one of these syringes is more expensive. CONCLUSION: The results of our comparison studies showed that the syringe with a 25-G x 5/8-in. permanent needle is ideal for FPRNA doses because of its sturdiness, low residual activity, and the quality of the bolus and resulting images.  (+info)

Syringe vending machines for injection drug users: an experiment in Marseille, France. (8/321)

OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the usefulness of vending machines in providing injection drug users with access to sterile syringes in Marseille, France. METHODS: Self-administered questionnaires were offered to 485 injection drug users obtaining syringes from 32 pharmacies, 4 needle exchange programs, and 3 vending machines. RESULTS: Of the 343 respondents (response rate = 70.7%), 21.3% used the vending machines as their primary source of syringes. Primary users of vending machines were more likely than primary users of other sources to be younger than 30 years, to report no history of drug maintenance treatment, and to report no sharing of needles or injection paraphernalia. CONCLUSIONS: Vending machines may be an appropriate strategy for providing access to syringes for younger injection drug users, who have typically avoided needle exchange programs and pharmacies.  (+info)