Mice transgenic for an expanded CAG repeat in the Huntington's disease gene develop diabetes.
The autosomal dominant neurological syndrome of Huntington's disease has been modeled in transgenic mice by the expression of a portion of the human huntingtin gene together with 140 CAG repeats (the R6/2 strain). The mice develop progressive chorea with onset at approximately 9 weeks of age and with death at approximately 13 weeks. Associated symptoms include weight loss and polyuria in the absence of eating or drinking deficits. We have found that these mice have insulin-responsive diabetes. Fasting glucose was 211 + 19 mg/dl in R6/2 mice compared with 93 + 5 mg/dl in C57/B6 controls (n = 12, both groups; P < 0.01). Administration of insulin intraperitoneally led to a reduction in blood glucose. At 12.5 weeks, animals were killed and pancreas weighed and analyzed for insulin and glucagon. Pancreatic mass in R6/2 mice was the same as controls, and islets appeared normal in morphology without lymphocytic infiltration. Immunohistochemical staining showed dramatic reductions in glucagon in the alpha-cells and in insulin in the beta-cells. Direct tissue assays showed glucagon and insulin content were reduced to only 10 and 15% of controls, respectively. Diabetes has been reported as being more common in Huntington's disease and other triplet repeat disorders. The R6/2 mouse should prove useful for elucidating the mechanism of diabetes in these genetic diseases. (+info)
Dose related growth response to indometacin in Gitelman syndrome.
Growth failure is a recognised feature of Gitelman syndrome, although it is not as frequent as in Bartter syndrome. Indometacin is reported to improve growth in Bartter syndrome, but not in Gitelman syndrome, where magnesium supplements are recommended. This paper presents 3 sisters with Gitelman syndrome who could not tolerate magnesium supplements, and whose hypotension and polyuria were eliminated by taking 2 mg/kg/day indometacin, but who grew poorly. However, increasing the indometacin dose to 4 mg/kg/day improved their growth significantly, without changing their symptoms or biochemistry. Gastrointestinal haemorrhage necessitated the use of misoprostol. (+info)
Functional, biochemical, and molecular investigations of renal kallikrein-kinin system in diabetic rats.
A reduction of renal kallikrein has been found in non-insulin-treated diabetic individuals, suggesting that an impaired renal kallikrein-kinin system (KKS) contributes to the development of diabetic nephropathy. We analyzed relevant components of the renal KKS in non-insulin-treated streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Twelve weeks after a single injection of STZ, rats were normotensive and displayed hyperglycemia, polyuria, proteinuria, and reduced glomerular filtration rate. Blood bradykinin (BK) levels and prekallikrein activity were significantly increased compared with controls. Renal kallikrein activity was reduced by 70%, whereas urinary BK levels were increased up to threefold. Renal kininases were decreased as indicated by a 3-fold reduction in renal angiotensin-converting enzyme activity and a 1.8-fold reduction in renal expression of neutral endopeptidase 24.11. Renal cortical expression of kininogen and B2 receptors was enhanced to 1.4 and 1. 8-fold, respectively. Our data suggest that increased urinary BK levels found in severely hyperglycemic STZ-diabetic rats are related to increased filtration of components of the plasma KKS and/or renal kininogen synthesis in combination with decreased renal kinin-degrading activity. Thus, despite reduced renal kallikrein synthesis, renal KKS is activated in the advanced stage of diabetic nephropathy. (+info)
Analysis of the vasopressin system and water regulation in genetically polydipsic mice.
Polydipsic mice, STR/N, which show extreme polydipsia and polyuria, were discovered in 1958. In the STR/N, urine outputs are much higher than in control mice. The possibility of an abnormal regulation of the arginine vasopressin (AVP) system, or an abnormality in the renal susceptibility to AVP, should be considered. In this study we investigated the AVP system and water regulation in STR/N. We sequenced the AVP and the AVP V(2)-receptor genes of the STR/N by direct sequencing. No mutation was found in either of them. AVP gene expression examined by in situ hybridization and plasma sodium in 8-wk-old STR/N was significantly lower than in control mice, whereas it was significantly higher at 20 wk. Renal sensitivity to injected AVP was attenuated in 20-wk-old STR/N. The suppression of AVP synthesis due to excessive water retention in 8-wk-old STR/N suggests that polydipsia may be the primary cause in this strain. The 20-wk-old STR/N became dehydrated with the acceleration of AVP synthesis, which might have resulted from secondary desensitization to AVP. (+info)
Uncompensated polyuria in a mouse model of Bartter's syndrome.
We have used homologous recombination to disrupt the mouse gene coding for the NaK2Cl cotransporter (NKCC2) expressed in kidney epithelial cells of the thick ascending limb and macula densa. This gene is one of several that when mutated causes Bartter's syndrome in humans, a syndrome characterized by severe polyuria and electrolyte imbalance. Homozygous NKCC2-/- pups were born in expected numbers and appeared normal. However, by day 1 they showed signs of extracellular volume depletion (hematocrit 51%; wild type 37%). They subsequently failed to thrive. By day 7, they were small and markedly dehydrated and exhibited renal insufficiency, high plasma potassium, metabolic acidosis, hydronephrosis of varying severity, and high plasma renin concentrations. None survived to weaning. Treatment of -/- pups with indomethacin from day 1 prevented growth retardation and 10% treated for 3 weeks survived, although as adults they exhibited severe polyuria (10 ml/day), extreme hydronephrosis, low plasma potassium, high blood pH, hypercalciuria, and proteinuria. Wild-type mice treated with furosemide, an inhibitor of NaK2Cl cotransporters, have a phenotype similar to the indomethacin-rescued -/- adults except that hydronephrosis was mild. The polyuria, hypercalciuria, and proteinuria of the -/- adults and furosemide-treated wild-type mice were unresponsive to inhibitors of the renin angiotensin system, vasopressin, and further indomethacin. Thus absence of NKCC2 in the mouse causes polyuria that is not compensated elsewhere in the nephron. The NKCC2 mutant animals should be valuable for uncovering new pathophysiologic and therapeutic aspects of genetic disturbances in water and electrolyte recovery by the kidney. (+info)
Downregulation of aquaporin-2 and -3 in aging kidney is independent of V(2) vasopressin receptor.
The mechanisms underlying age-related polyuria were investigated in 10- and 30-mo-old female WAG/Rij rats. Urinary volume and osmolality were 3.9 +/- 0.3 ml/24 h and 2,511 +/- 54 mosmol/kgH(2)O in adult rats and 12.8 +/- 0.8 ml/24 h and 1,042 +/- 44 mosmol/kgH(2)O in senescent animals. Vasopressin V(2) receptor mRNA did not significantly differ between 10 and 30 mo, and [(3)H]vasopressin binding sites in membrane papilla were reduced by 30%. The cAMP content of the papilla was unchanged with age, whereas papillary osmolality was significantly lowered in senescent animals. The expression of aquaporin-1 (AQP1) and -4 was mostly unaltered from 10 to 30 mo. In contrast, aquaporin-2 (AQP2) and -3 (AQP3) expression was downregulated by 80 and 50%, respectively, and AQP2 was markedly redistributed into the intracellular compartment, in inner medulla of senescent animals, but not in renal cortex. These results indicate that age-related polyuria is associated with a downregulation of AQP2 and AQP3 expression in the medullary collecting duct, which is independent of vasopressin-mediated cAMP accumulation. (+info)
The mechanism of acute renal failure after uranyl nitrate.
Administration of 25 mg/kg uranyl nitrate (UN) to rats leads to a brief period of polyuria followed by progressive oliguria with death at 5 days. Factors that determine glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were examined in control Munich-Wistar rats (n equals 16) and 2 h after either 15 mg/kg (n equals 8) or 25 mg/kg (n equals 7) of UN (i.v.) utilizing direct measurements of hydrostatic and oncotic pressures and plasma flow. Total kidney GFR was reduced to 47% of control in the low dose group and to 21% in the high dose group. The simultaneous nephron filtration rate (sngfr) was 28.6 plus or minus 0.8 nl/min/g kidney wt in control, 29.1 plus or minus 1.0 in the low dose group, and 18.1 plus or minus 1.2 (P less than 0.001) in the higher dose group. This disparity in UN effect upon GFR and sngfr was due to tubular back-diffusion of solute through damaged epithelia beyond the early proximal tubule as demonstrated by microinjection of inulin and mannitol in the proximal tubule. Inulin "leak" persisted at 6 h after UN when tubular pressure had returned to normal. Comparison of sngfr measured in early vs. late proximal tubule revealed no difference after high dose UN, suggesting no significant leak of inulin from the early proximal tubule, and that the decreased sngfr was due to primary reductions in ultrafiltration. Nephron plasma flow was equal to control at both doses of UN. Also directly measured hydrostatic pressure gradient across the glomerular capillary was not changed. The effective filtration pressure achieved equilibrium in control of animals but became significantly positive at the efferent end of the capillary at both doses of UN and increased. Total glomerular permeability (LpA) was progressively reduced from control (0.089 plus or minus 0.005 nl/s/g kidney wt/mm Hg) at low dose UN (0.047 plus or minus 0.013) and high dose 0.024 plus or minus 0.003 nl/s/g kidney wt/mm Hg). Therefore UN decreases GFR by two mechanisms: (1) tubular damage leading to back-diffusion of solutes and (b) a primary reduction in sngfr due to reduced LpA. (+info)
The protective effect of taurine against gentamicin-induced acute tubular necrosis in rats.
BACKGROUND: Taurine, which is the major intracellular free beta-amino acid, is known to be an endogenous antioxidant and a membrane-stabilizing agent. In this study, we wished to know whether taurine altered the concentration of gentamicin in kidney tissue and could protect against gentamicin-induced acute proximal tubular injury. METHODS: Wistar albino rats of both sexes were assigned to three groups, which all received one of the following daily intraperitoneal injections for 8 days: (i) 0.9% sodium chloride (NaCl) alone at the same volume as gentamicin treated rats (group C; n=8); (ii) 100 mg/kg/day gentamicin alone (group G; n=8, four male, four female); or (iii) 100 mg/kg/day gentamicin plus 7.5 ml/kg/day taurine (group G+T; n=9, five male, four female). Urine was collected for 24 h for the determination of urine volume and creatinine. Intracardiac blood was collected for blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine determination. The kidneys were removed, weighed, and the left kidneys were subjected to biochemical analysis for the determination of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) and lactate levels, and glutathione peroxidase (Gpx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. The right kidneys were divided vertically in half. The upper halves were used for histopathological examination, by light and electron microscopy. The lower halves were used to detect the gentamicin concentration within the kidney tissue, by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Changes in body weight and normalized kidney weight were recorded. RESULTS: Taurine treatment reduced gentamicin-induced increases in serum creatinine, 24 h urine volume, BUN and tissue lactate and TBARS levels (0.57+/-0.02 vs 1.06+/-0.08 mg/dl, P<0.001; 9.00+/-1.46 vs 20.9+/-2.73 ml, P<0.001; 25.3+/-1.87 vs 54.1+/-6.99 mg/dl, P<0. 001; 2.56+/-0.10 vs 3.44+/-0.08 micromol/g wet tissue, P<0.001; and 66.4+/-3.41 vs 79.5+/-5.07 nmol/g wet tissue, P>0.05, respectively). Taurine reduced the accumulation of gentamicin within the kidney tissue (233+/-29 vs 494+/-93 microg/g wet tissue, P<0.05). Taurine treatment also prevented body weight loss due to gentamicin administration (17.8+/-1.64 vs -10.0+/-7.08 g, P<0.01) and normalized reduced Gpx and SOD activities (3.46+/-0.16 vs 2.37+/-0. 15 U/g wet tissue, P<0.01; and 15577+/-377 vs 12662+/-577 U/g wet tissue, P<0.01, respectively). Light microscopic examination of the renal tissues from gentamicin-treated rats revealed severe histopathological changes, whereas specimens obtained from taurine-treated rats revealed only mild changes. This finding was supported by electron microscopic examination. CONCLUSIONS: Our observations suggest that taurine treatment attenuates the accumulation of gentamicin within kidney tissue and counteracts the deleterious effect of gentamicin on renal tubular function. They may have potentially important clinical implications. (+info)