Molecular enzymology of mammalian Delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase. Alternative splice donor utilization generates isoforms with different sensitivity to ornithine inhibition.
Delta1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase (P5CS; EC not assigned), a mitochondrial inner membrane, ATP- and NADPH-dependent, bifunctional enzyme, catalyzes the reduction of glutamate to Delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate, a critical step in the de novo biosynthesis of proline and ornithine. We utilized published plant P5CS sequence to search the expressed sequence tag data base and cloned two full-length human P5CS cDNAs differing in length by 6 base pairs (bp) in the open reading frame. The short cDNA has a 2379-bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 793 residues; the long cDNA, generated by "exon sliding," a form of alternative splicing, contains an additional 6-bp insert following bp +711 of the short form resulting in inclusion of two additional amino acids in the region predicted to be the gamma-glutamyl kinase active site of P5CS. The long form predominates in all tissues examined except gut. We also isolated the corresponding long and short murine P5CS transcripts. To confirm the identity of the putative P5CS cDNAs, we expressed both human forms in gamma-glutamyl kinase- and gamma-glutamyl phosphate reductase-deficient strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and showed that they conferred the proline prototrophy. Additionally, we found expression of the murine putative P5CS cDNAs conferred proline prototrophy to P5CS-deficient Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1). We utilized stable CHO-K1 cell transformants to compare the biochemical characteristics of the long and short murine P5CS isoforms. We found that both confer P5CS activity and that the short isoform is inhibited by L-ornithine with a Ki of approximately 0.25 mM. Surprisingly, the long isoform is insensitive to ornithine inhibition. Thus, the two amino acid insert in the long isoform abolishes feedback inhibition of P5CS activity by L-ornithine. (+info)
The sfr6 mutation in Arabidopsis suppresses low-temperature induction of genes dependent on the CRT/DRE sequence motif.
The sfr mutations, which result in sensitivity to freezing after cold acclimation, define genes that are required for freezing tolerance. We tested plants homozygous for mutations sfr2 to sfr7 for cold-induced gene expression and found that sfr 6 plants were deficient in cold-inducible expression of the genes KIN1, COR15a, and LTI78, which all contain the C repeat/dehydration-responsive element (CRT/DRE) motif in their promoters. Similarly, sfr 6 plants failed to induce KIN1 normally in response to either osmotic stress or the application of abscisic acid. In contrast, cold-inducible expression of genes CBF1, CBF2, CBF3, and ATP5CS1, which lack the CRT/DRE motif, was not affected. The freezing-sensitive phenotype that defines sfr 6 also was found to be tightly linked to the gene expression phenotype. To determine whether the failure of cold induction of CRT/DRE-containing genes in sfr 6 was due to altered low-temperature calcium signaling, cold-induced cytosolic-free calcium ([Ca2+]cyt) elevations were investigated in the sfr 6 mutant, but these were found to be indistinguishable from those of the wild type. We discuss the possibilities that CRT/DRE binding proteins (such as CBF1) require activation to play a role in transcription and that the SFR6 protein is a vital component of their activation. (+info)
Proline accumulation in developing grapevine fruit occurs independently of changes in the levels of delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase mRNA or protein.
Mature fruit of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) contains unusually high levels of free proline (Pro; up to 24 micromol or 2.8 mg/g fresh weight). Pro accumulation does not occur uniformly throughout berry development but only during the last 4 to 6 weeks of ripening when both berry growth and net protein accumulation have ceased. In contrast, the steady-state levels of both the mRNA encoding V. vinifera Delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (VVP5CS), a key regulatory enzyme in Pro biosynthesis, and its protein product remain relatively uniform throughout fruit development. In addition, the steady-state protein levels of Pro dehydrogenase, the first enzyme in Pro degradation, increased throughout early fruit development but thereafter remained relatively constant. The developmental accumulation of free Pro late in grape berry ripening is thus clearly distinct from the osmotic stress-induced accumulation of Pro in plants. It is not associated with either sustained increases in steady-state levels of P5CS mRNA or protein or a decrease in steady-state levels of Pro dehydrogenase protein, suggesting that other physiological factors are important for its regulation. (+info)
Metabolite repression and inducer exclusion in the proline utilization gene cluster of Aspergillus nidulans.
The clustered prnB, prnC, and prnD genes are repressed by the simultaneous presence of glucose and ammonium. A derepressed mutation inactivating a CreA-binding site acts in cis only on the permease gene (prnB) while derepression of prnD and prnC is largely the result of reversal of inducer exclusion. (+info)
Removal of feedback inhibition of delta(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase results in increased proline accumulation and protection of plants from osmotic stress.
The Delta(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS; EC not assigned) is the rate-limiting enzyme in proline (Pro) biosynthesis in plants and is subject to feedback inhibition by Pro. It has been suggested that the feedback regulation of P5CS is lost in plants under stress conditions. We compared Pro levels in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants expressing a wild-type form of Vigna aconitifolia P5CS and a mutated form of the enzyme (P5CSF129A) whose feedback inhibition by Pro was removed by site-directed mutagenesis. Transgenic plants expressing P5CSF129A accumulated about 2-fold more Pro than the plants expressing V. aconitifolia wild-type P5CS. This difference was further increased in plants treated with 200 mM NaCl. These results demonstrated that the feedback regulation of P5CS plays a role in controlling the level of Pro in plants under both normal and stress conditions. The elevated Pro also reduced free radical levels in response to osmotic stress, as measured by malondialdehyde production, and significantly improved the ability of the transgenic seedlings to grow in medium containing up to 200 mM NaCl. These findings shed new light on the regulation of Pro biosynthesis in plants and the role of Pro in reducing oxidative stress induced by osmotic stress, in addition to its accepted role as an osmolyte. (+info)
Genetic manipulation of the metabolism of polyamines in poplar cells. The regulation of putrescine catabolism.
We investigated the catabolism of putrescine (Put) in a non-transgenic (NT) and a transgenic cell line of poplar (Populus nigra x maximowiczii) expressing a mouse (Mus musculus) ornithine (Orn) decarboxylase (odc) cDNA. The transgenic cells produce 3- to 4-fold higher amounts of Put than the NT cells. The rate of loss of Put from the cells and the initial half-life of cellular Put were determined by feeding the cells with [U-(14)C]Orn and [1,4-(14)C]Put as precursors and following the loss of [(14)C]Put in the cells at various times after transfer to label-free medium. The amount of Put converted into spermidine as well as the loss of Put per gram fresh weight were significantly higher in the transgenic cells than the NT cells. The initial half-life of exogenously supplied [(14)C]Put was not significantly different in the two cell lines. The activity of diamine oxidase, the major enzyme involved in Put catabolism, was comparable in the two cell lines even though the Put content of the transgenic cells was severalfold higher than the NT cells. It is concluded that in poplar cells: (a) exogenously supplied Orn enters the cells and is rapidly converted into Put, (b) the rate of Put catabolism is proportional to the rate of its biosynthesis, and (c) the increased Put degradation occurs without significant changes in the activity of diamine oxidase. (+info)
A plant gene up-regulated at rust infection sites.
Expression of the fis1 gene from flax (Linum usitatissimum) is induced by a compatible rust (Melampsora lini) infection. Infection of transgenic plants containing a beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene under the control of the fis1 promoter showed that induction is highly localized to those leaf mesophyll cells within and immediately surrounding rust infection sites. The level of induction reflects the extent of fungal growth. In a strong resistance reaction, such as the hypersensitive fleck mediated by the L6 resistance gene, there is very little fungal growth and a microscopic level of GUS expression. Partially resistant flax leaves show levels of GUS expression that were intermediate to the level observed in the fully susceptible infection. Sequence and deletion analysis using both transient Agrobacterium tumefaciens expression and stable transformation assays have shown that the rust-inducible fis1 promoter is contained within a 580-bp fragment. Homologs of fis1 were identified in expressed sequence tag databases of a range of plant species including dicots, monocots, and a gymnosperm. Homologous genes isolated from maize (Zea mays; mis1), barley (Hordeum vulgare; bis1), wheat (Triticum aestivum; wis1), and Arabidopsis encode proteins that are highly similar (76%-82%) to the FIS1 protein. The Arabidopsis homologue has been reported to encode a delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase that is involved in the catabolism of proline to glutamate. RNA-blot analysis showed that mis1 in maize and the bis1 homolog in barley are both up-regulated by a compatible infection with the corresponding species-specific rust. The rust-induced genes homologous to fis1 are present in many plants. The promoters of these genes have potential roles for the engineering of synthetic rust resistance genes by targeting transgene expression to the sites of rust infection. (+info)
Molecular mechanisms of proline-mediated tolerance to toxic heavy metals in transgenic microalgae.
Pro has been shown to play an important role in ameliorating environmental stress in plants and microorganisms, including heavy metal stress. Here, we describe the effects of the expression of a mothbean delta(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS) gene in the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We show that transgenic algae expressing the mothbean P5CS gene have 80% higher free-Pro levels than wild-type cells, grow more rapidly in toxic Cd concentrations (100 microM), and bind fourfold more Cd than wild-type cells. In addition, Cd-K edge extended x-ray absorption fine structure studies indicated that Cd does not bind to free Pro in transgenic algae with increased Pro levels but is coordinated tetrahedrally by sulfur of phytochelatin. In contrast to P5CS-expressing cells, Cd is coordinated tetrahedrally by two oxygen and two sulfur atoms in wild-type cells. Measurements of reduced/oxidized GSH ratios and analyses of levels of malondialdehyde, a product of the free radical damage of lipids, indicate that free Pro levels are correlated with the GSH redox state and malondialdehyde levels in heavy metal-treated algae. These results suggest that the free Pro likely acts as an antioxidant in Cd-stressed cells. The resulting increased GSH levels facilitate increased phytochelatin synthesis and sequestration of Cd, because GSH-heavy metal adducts are the substrates for phytochelatin synthase. (+info)