The US Food and Drug Administration investigational device exemptions (IDE) and clinical investigation of cardiovascular devices: information for the investigator.
The conduct of a clinical investigation of a medical device to determine the safety and effectiveness of the device is covered by the investigational device exemptions (IDE) regulation. The purpose of IDE regulation is "to encourage, to the extent consistent with the protection of public health and safety and with ethical standards, the discovery and development of useful devices intended for human use, and to that end to maintain optimum freedom for scientific investigators in their pursuit of this purpose" (Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act). Conducting a clinical investigation may require an approved IDE application. The US Food and Drug Administration encourages early interaction with the agency through the pre-IDE process during the development of a device or technology and during the preparation of an IDE application. This facilitates approval of the IDE application and progression into the clinical investigation. This paper reviews the terminology and applicability of the IDE regulation and the type of study that requires an IDE application to the Food and Drug Administration. The pre-IDE process and the development of an IDE application for a significant risk study of a cardiovascular device are discussed. (+info)
Whose policy is it anyway? International and national influences on health policy development in Uganda.
As national resources for health decline, so dependence on international resources to finance the capital and recurrent costs is increasing. This dependence, combined with an increasing emphasis on policy-based, as opposed to project-based, lending and grant-making has been accompanied by greater involvement of international actors in the formation of national health policy. This paper explores the process of health policy development in Uganda and examines how major donors are influencing and conflicting with national policy-making bodies. Focusing on two examples of user fees and drugs policies, it argues that while the content of international prescriptions to strengthen the health system may not be bad in itself, the process by which they are applied potentially threatens national sovereignty and weakens mechanisms for ensuring accountability. It concludes by proposing that in order to increase the sustainability of policy reforms, much greater emphasis should be placed on strengthening national capacity for policy analysis and research, building up policy networks and enhancing the quality of information available to the public concerning key policy changes. (+info)
Financing pharmaceuticals in transition economies.
This paper (a) provides a methodological taxonomy of pricing, financing, reimbursement, and cost containment methodologies for pharmaceuticals; (b) analyzes complex agency relationships and the health versus industrial policy tradeoff; (c) pinpoints financing measures to balance safety and effectiveness of medicines and their affordability by publicly funded systems in transition; and (d) highlights viable options for policy-makers for the financing of pharmaceuticals in transition. Three categories of measures and their implications for pharmaceutical policy cost containing are analyzed: supply-side measures, targeting manufacturers, proxy demand-side measures, targeting physicians and pharmacists, and demand-side measures, targeting patients. In pursuing supply side measures, we explore free pricing for pharmaceuticals, direct price controls, cost-plus and cost pricing, average pricing and international price comparisons, profit control, reference pricing, the introduction of a fourth hurdle, positive and negative lists, and other price control measures. The analysis of proxy-demand measures includes budgets for physicians, generic policies, practice guidelines, monitoring the authorizing behavior of physicians, and disease management schemes. Demand-side measures explore the effectiveness of patient co-payments, the impact of allowing products over-the-counter and health promotion programs. Global policies should operate simultaneously on the supply, the proxy demand, and the demand-side. Policy-making needs to have a continuous long-term planning. The importation of policies into transition economy may require extensive and expensive adaptation, and/or lead to sub-optimal policy outcomes. (+info)
New federal office will spend millions to regulate herbal remedies, vitamins.
The new Office of Natural Health Products promises better regulation of herbal remedies, but its creation raises many questions. (+info)
Thimerosal in vaccines: a joint statement of the American Academy of Pediatrics and the Public Health Service.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Modernization Act of 1997 called for FDA to review and assess the risk of all mercury-containing food and drugs. In line with this review, U.S. vaccine manufacturers responded to a December 1998 and April 1999 FDA request to provide more detailed information about the thimerosal content of their preparations that include this compound as a preservative. Thimerosal has been used as an additive to biologics and vaccines since the 1930s because it is very effective in killing bacteria used in several vaccines and in preventing bacterial contamination, particularly in opened multidose containers. Some but not all of the vaccines recommended routinely for children in the United States contain thimerosal. (+info)
Self-medication of antibacterials without prescription (also called 'over-the-counter' use). A report of a Working Party of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy.
The availability of antimicrobial agents for self-medication may increase and could include antibacterial agents for oral or topical use. Wholesale deregulation of antibacterials would be undesirable and likely to encourage misuse of classes of agents currently important in the management of serious infections. Changed regulation from Prescription-Only Medicine (POM) to Pharmacy (P) medicine of selected agents with indications for short-term use in specific minor infections and illness is likely to have advantages to the user. However, safeguards to their use would need to be included in the Patient Information Leaflet (PIL). Agents and indications for self-medication are discussed. Any alteration in licensed status from POM to P will require careful risk-benefit assessment, including the likely impact on bacterial resistance. Safety issues also include concerns relating to age of the user, pregnancy, underlying disease and the potential for drug interactions. The importance of appropriate information with the PIL is emphasized, as is the role of the pharmacist, while ways of improving adverse event notification and monitoring are discussed. The paucity of good denominator-controlled data on the prevalence of in-vitro resistance is highlighted, and recommendations for improving the situation are made. There are currently no levels of resistance accepted by regulatory bodies on which to base a licensing decision, be it for granting a product licence, renewal of a licence or a change in licensed status from POM to P. Due consideration should be given to: the validation of user-defined indications in comparison with those medically defined; the enhancement of pharmacy advice in the purchase of such agents; improved safety monitoring; the establishment of systematic surveillance of susceptibility data. (+info)
Recommendations regarding the use of vaccines that contain thimerosal as a preservative.
On October 20, 1999, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) reviewed information about thimerosal in vaccines and received updates from CDC's National Immunization Program and several vaccine manufacturers on the current and anticipated availability of vaccines that do not contain thimerosal as a preservative. The review was prompted by a joint statement about thimerosal issued July 8, 1999, by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and the Public Health Service (PHS) (1) and a comparable statement released by the American Academy of Family Physicians (2). These statements followed a Congressionally mandated Food and Drug Administration (FDA) review of mercury in drugs and food, which included a reassessment of the use of thimerosal in vaccines. (+info)