Comparison of iodophor and alcohol pledgets with the Medi-Flex blood culture prep kit II for preventing contamination of blood cultures. (1/24)

Iodophor and alcohol pledgets were compared with the Medi-Flex Prep Kit II for skin disinfection before venipuncture. Of 12,367 blood cultures collected, 6,362 were done with conventional pledgets and 6, 005 were done with Medi-Flex kits. Contamination occurred in 351 of 6,362 blood cultures (5.5%; range, 3.7 to 8.1%) with conventional pledgets versus 328 of 6,005 (5.5%; range, 3.5 to 7.5%) with Medi-Flex kits.  (+info)

Efficacy of common laboratory disinfectants on the infectivity of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in cell culture. (2/24)

Nine liquid disinfectants were tested for their ability to reduce infectivity of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in cell culture. A 4-min exposure to 6% hydrogen peroxide and a 13-min exposure to ammonium hydroxide-amended windshield washer fluid reduced infectivity 1,000-fold. Other disinfectants tested (70% ethanol, 37% methanol, 6% sodium hypochlorite, 70% isopropanol, and three commercial disinfectants) did not reduce the infectivity after a 33-min exposure. The results indicate that hydrogen peroxide and windshield washer fluid or ammonium hydroxide disinfectant may be suitable laboratory disinfectants against C. parvum oocysts.  (+info)

Guideline for Hand Hygiene in Health-Care Settings. Recommendations of the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee and the HICPAC/SHEA/APIC/IDSA Hand Hygiene Task Force. Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America/Association for Professionals in Infection Control/Infectious Diseases Society of America. (3/24)

The Guideline for Hand Hygiene in Health-Care Settings provides health-care workers (HCWs) with a review of data regarding handwashing and hand antisepsis in health-care settings. In addition, it provides specific recommendations to promote improved hand-hygiene practices and reduce transmission ofpathogenic microorganisms to patients and personnel in health-care settings. This report reviews studies published since the 1985 CDC guideline (Garner JS, Favero MS. CDC guideline for handwashing and hospital environmental control, 1985. Infect Control 1986;7:231-43) and the 1995 APIC guideline (Larson EL, APIC Guidelines Committee. APIC guideline for handwashing and hand antisepsis in health care settings. Am J Infect Control 1995;23:251-69) were issued and provides an in-depth review of hand-hygiene practices of HCWs, levels of adherence of personnel to recommended handwashing practices, and factors adversely affecting adherence. New studies of the in vivo efficacy of alcohol-based hand rubs and the low incidence of dermatitis associated with their use are reviewed. Recent studies demonstrating the value of multidisciplinary hand-hygiene promotion programs and the potential role of alcohol-based hand rubs in improving hand-hygiene practices are summarized. Recommendations concerning related issues (e.g., the use of surgical hand antiseptics, hand lotions or creams, and wearing of artificial fingernails) are also included.  (+info)

Comparison of povidone iodine and DuraPrep, an iodophor-in-isopropyl alcohol solution, for skin disinfection prior to epidural catheter insertion in parturients. (4/24)

BACKGROUND: Although rare, infectious sequelae of epidural analgesia can occur. A recently marketed antiseptic solution (DuraPrep) which contains an iodophor in isopropyl alcohol, may provide enhanced and longer-lasting antimicrobial activity and thus be useful in the obstetric setting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antisepsis achieved with DuraPrep compared with povidone iodine (PI). METHODS: Sixty women in active labor who requested epidural analgesia were randomly assigned to receive skin preparation with either PI or DuraPrep solution. A total of three cultures were obtained from each subject. The first was obtained just prior to skin disinfection, the second was obtained immediately following antisepsis, and the third was obtained just before removal of the catheter. In addition, the distal tip of the catheter was also submitted for culture. RESULTS: The clinical characteristics and the risk factors for infection were similar in the two groups. The proportion of subjects with positive skin cultures immediately after skin disinfection differed significantly between the PI and DuraPrep groups (30 3%, respectively, P = 0.01). The number of subjects with any positive skin cultures at the time of catheter removal was greater in the PI group as compared to the DuraPrep group (97 50%, respectively, P = 0.0001), as was the number of organisms cultured from skin (log CFU 1.93 +/- 0.40 0.90 +/- 0.23, respectively, P = 0.03). Six catheters, all from the PI group, yielded positive cultures by the roll-plate technique. CONCLUSION: As compared to PI, DuraPrep solution was found to provide a greater decrease in the number of positive skin cultures immediately after disinfection, as well as in bacterial regrowth and colonization of the epidural catheters.  (+info)

Comparison of 5% povidone-iodine solution against 1% povidone-iodine solution in preoperative cataract surgery antisepsis: a prospective randomised double blind study. (5/24)

BACKGROUND/AIM: Povidone-iodine (PI, Betadine) is routinely used as a preoperative topical antiseptic in cataract surgery as it has been shown to reduce the incidence of postoperative endophthalmitis. However, the concentration used clinically is variable. In vitro studies have shown that PI is paradoxically more effective at lower concentration. This study was undertaken to determine if this effect was reproducible in vivo. METHODS: A prospective randomised double blind study was carried out in the ophthalmic theatre in a district general hospital. 105 patients attending for routine cataract surgery were randomly allocated to have their conjunctival fornices irrigated preoperatively with either PI 1% (group A) or PI 5% (group B). Conjunctival swabs were taken, in identical fashion, both before and 1 minute after irrigation. The number and species of bacterial colonies cultured from each swab was counted. The difference in the median number of bacterial colonies from pre-irrigation to post-irrigation cultures was then compared between the groups. RESULTS: Bacterial cultures were gained from 100 patients (33 male, 67 female, mean age 74 years, range 30-95 years). Group B (5% PI) showed a decrease in median colony forming units (CFU) pre-irrigation from 100 to 40 CFU post-irrigation (a drop of 60%). This was greater than in group A (1% PI) where the reduction was 120 CFU pre-irrigation to 100 CFU post-irrigation (a drop of 16.7%) (Mann-Whitney test, p<0.05). At higher initial bacterial loads (CFU pre-irrigation >1000), the difference in median between the two groups became larger as the number of pre-irrigation bacteria increased. In group B pre-irrigation CFU reduced from 3340 to 110 post-irrigation (a drop of 96.7%) compared with group A: 5000 CFU pre-irrigation to 3000 post-irrigation (a drop of 40%) (Mann-Whitney test, p=0.0014). CONCLUSION: Despite in vitro evidence of higher bactericidal efficacy of PI at more dilute concentrations, 5% PI is more effective than 1% PI in decreasing the human conjunctival bacterial flora in vivo, particularly in the presence of heavier initial bacterial load.  (+info)

Application of a gloved-hand model for multiparameter measurements of skin-degerming activity. (6/24)

The application of an established gloved-hand model to multiparameter measurements of skin-degerming activity is described. In particular, appropriate experimental designs are illustrated which allow characterization of performance of topical skin-cleansing preparations in terms of rapid, sustained, cummulative, and persistent skin-degerming effects on the hand. Single-contact studies were used to define the degerming activity profiles of selected commercial surgical scrub preparations, and to establish the optimal post-treatment sampling interval for individual preparations. Rapid and sustained skin-degerming effects were measured and contrasted. Rapid skin-degerming activity, iodophor preparation. Sustained skin-degerming activity, namely, that occurring on the gloved hand during a postcontact interval, was shown and characterized for two hexachlorophene preparations. Multiple-contact studies with a 3% hexachlorophene preparations were used to illustrate cummulative and persistent skin-degerming effects. Cummulative skin-degerming activity was demonstrated in terms of progressive bacterial reductions after repeated contacts within a single day. Presistent skin-degerming activity was shown in terms of the profile of daily pretreatment bacterial counts after multiple contacts over successive days. Uniformity of treatment response was established for a broad range of pretreatment bacterial counts extending from approximatley log 4 to log 7 per hand. The importance of pretreatment bacterial count measurement and of adequate neutralization of hand extract samples is stressed. A randomized-hand experimental design is discussed relative to its versatility and amenability to statistical analysis.  (+info)

Congenital idiopathic chylothorax in neonates: chemical pleurodesis with povidone-iodine (Betadine). (7/24)

Chylothorax is defined as an accumulation of chyle in the pleural space. This condition usually occurs after an operation, the congenital idiopathic form being rare (1/15000 births). Recovery is observed within four to six weeks of diagnosis in most cases. Treatment is either conservative or surgical. Four cases are reported of congenital chylothorax (three idiopathic, one accompanied by diffuse lymphangectasia) managed by chemical pleurodesis (intrapleural injection of povidone-iodine). Tolerance was satisfactory: unaltered thyroid function in the three cases explored; one case of transient generalised oedema. Treatment was deemed successful in three of the four cases. One child died from renal failure (unrelated to the chemical pleurodesis). Pleurodesis by povidone-iodine appears to be well tolerated and may represent a good alternative to mechanical abrasion or surgery for congenital idiopathic chylothorax. Its use for refractory chylothorax may also decrease the morbidity related to prolonged hospital stay.  (+info)

A randomised trial of povidone-iodine to reduce visual impairment from corneal ulcers in rural Nepal. (8/24)

AIM: To assess whether povidone-iodine provided any benefit over and above a standard regimen of antibiotic therapy for the treatment of corneal ulcers. METHODS: All patients diagnosed with corneal ulcers presenting for care at a primary eye care clinic in rural Nepal were randomised to a standard protocol of antibiotic therapy versus standard therapy plus 2.5% povidone-iodine every 2 hours for 2 weeks. The main outcomes were corrected visual acuity and presence, size, and position of corneal scarring in the affected eye at 2-4 months following treatment initiation. RESULTS: 358 patients were randomised and 81% were examined at follow up. The two groups were comparable before treatment. At follow up, 3.9% in the standard therapy and 6.9% in the povidone-iodine group had corrected visual acuity worse than 20/400 (relative risk (RR) 1.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.62 to 5.03). 9.4% in the standard therapy and 13.1% in the povidone-iodine group had corrected visual acuity worse than 20/60 (RR 1.39, 95% CI 0.71 to 2.77), and 17.0% and 18.8% had scars in the visual axis in each of these groups, respectively (RR 1.11, 95% CI 0.67 to 1.82). CONCLUSIONS: A small proportion of patients with corneal ulceration treated in this setting had poor visual outcomes. The addition of povidone-iodine to standard antibiotic therapy did not improve visual outcomes, although this design was unable to assess whether povidone-iodine on its own would have resulted in comparable visual outcomes to that of standard therapy.  (+info)