Effect of earplugs on propofol requirement and awareness with recall during spinal anesthesia.
investigator either placed or did not place earplugs into the patients' ears (PLUG or noPLUG groups, respectively). Propofol requirements for stable sedation guided by the bispectral index and incidence of postoperative recall of intraoperative events were assessed in a double-blinded fashion. RESULTS: We found high but comparable propofol requirements in both groups (PLUG 4.4+/-1.2 vs. noPLUG 4.2+/-1.0 mg kg-1 h-1, p=NS). The incidence of intraoperative awareness was lower in the PLUG compared to the noPLUG group (16 vs. 56%; P<0.001). CONCLUSION: Although no sedative-sparing effect could be found in patients who wore earplugs during elective orthopedic surgery under spinal anesthesia, we nevertheless recommend using single-use paraffin wax earplugs. Beside their beneficial effect against potential harmful intraoperative noise, they reduce the incidence of intraoperative awareness with recall. (+info)
Awareness during anesthesia: a problem without solutions?
Awareness during anesthesia has been the subject of much research and commentary in recent years. In this article, we review the recent publications in the area of anesthesia awareness and attempt to answer the question: Is awareness a problem without solutions? The incidence of awareness has been reported in benchmark studies to be about 0.1%, but two recent studies in Spain and China have reported incidences of awareness of 1% and 0.4%, respectively. Recent studies have confirmed that awareness is more common in women undergoing cesarean sections (0.26%) and in children (0.5-1%). There are very few trials that provide strong evidence for awareness prevention strategies. The best current evidence from one randomized trial suggests that bispectral index monitoring identifies the presence and reduces the incidence of awareness in high-risk patients. More trials are needed and two large ongoing trials are exploring the value of monitoring end-tidal gas concentrations and maintaining adequate age-adjusted values during surgery as an alternative method to prevent awareness. (+info)
Intra-operative behavioral tasks in awake humans undergoing deep brain stimulation surgery.