Occupational human immunodeficiency virus infection in health care workers: worldwide cases through September 1997.
The average estimated risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection for health care workers following a percutaneous or mucous exposure is <0.5% in incidence studies, although a case-control study suggests it is much higher for highest-risk percutaneous exposure. To characterize exposures resulting in HIV transmission, we reviewed available data on occupational cases reported worldwide, identifying 94 documented and 170 possible cases. The majority of documented infections occurred in nurses, after contact with the blood of a patient with AIDS by means of percutaneous exposure, with a device placed in an artery or vein. High-exposure job categories, e.g., midwives and surgeons, are represented mostly among possible cases. Transmission occurred also through splashes, cuts, and skin contaminations, and in some cases despite postexposure prophylaxis with zidovudine. Health care workers could benefit if these data were incorporated in educational programs designed to prevent occupational bloodborne infections. (+info)
Safe working practices and HIV infection: knowledge, attitudes, perception of risk, and policy in hospital.
OBJECTIVES--To assess the knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of risk of occupational HIV transmission in hospital in relation to existing guidelines. DESIGN--Cross sectional anonymous questionnaire survey of all occupational groups. SETTING--One large inner city teaching hospital. SUBJECTS--All 1530 staff working in the hospital in October 1991 and 22 managers. MAIN MEASURES--Knowledge of safe working practices and hospital guidelines; attitudes towards patients with AIDS; perception of risk of occupational transmission of HIV; availability of guidelines. RESULTS--The response rate in the questionnaire survey was 63% (958/1530). Although staff across all occupational groups knew of the potential risk of infection from needlestick injury (98%, 904/922), significantly more non-clinical staff (ambulance, catering, and domestic staff) than clinical staff (doctors, nurses, and paramedics) thought HIV could be transmitted by giving blood (38%, 153/404 v 12%, 40/346; chi 2 = 66.1 p < 0.001); one in ten clinical staff believed this. Except for midwives, half of staff in most occupational groups and 19% (17/91) of doctors and 22% (28/125) of nurses thought gloves should be worn in all contacts with people with AIDS. Most staff (62%, 593/958), including 38% (36/94) of doctors and 52% (67/128) of nurses thought patients should be routinely tested on admission, 17% of doctors and 19% of nurses thought they should be isolated in hospital. One in three staff perceived themselves at risk of HIV. Midwives, nurses, and theatre technicians were most aware of guidelines for safe working compared with only half of doctors, ambulance, and paramedical staff and no incinerator staff. CONCLUSIONS--Policy guidelines for safe working practices for patients with HIV infection and AIDS need to be disseminated across all occupational groups to reduce negative staff attitudes, improve knowledge of occupational transmission, establish an appropriate perception of risk, and create a supportive and caring hospital environment for people with HIV. IMPLICATIONS--Managers need to disseminate policy guidelines and information to all staff on an ongoing basis. (+info)
Glove usage and reporting of needlestick injuries by junior hospital medical staff.
The use of gloves when conducting invasive procedures and the reporting of needlestick injuries have been strongly encouraged. Despite this, neither practice appears to be universal. In order to determine the rates of glove usage and needlestick injury reporting, we conducted a survey of junior doctors in three hospitals in the UK. Of the 190 respondents, the majority rarely wore gloves for venesection, insertion of intravenous cannulas or arterial blood gas sampling. For more major procedures (insertion of central venous lines, insertion of thoracostomy tubes, suturing) gloves were invariably worn. Only 17.5% of needlestick injuries were reported. The rates of glove usage and needlestick injury reporting were lower than previous studies have demonstrated in North America. Surgeons suffered the most needlestick injuries and were the least likely to report them. The low reporting rate may have serious implications, particularly in view of the new Government guidelines on needlestick injuries which involve HIV-infected blood. By failing to use gloves and report needlestick injuries, junior doctors, in particular surgeons, are placing themselves and patients at increased risk of blood-borne transmissible diseases. (+info)
Needlestick and sharps injuries among health-care workers in Taiwan.
Sharps injuries are a major cause of transmission of hepatitis B and C viruses and human immunodeficiency virus in health-care workers. To determine the yearly incidence and causes of sharps injuries in health-care workers in Taiwan, we conducted a questionnaire survey in a total of 8645 health care workers, including physicians, nurses, laboratory technicians, and cleaners, from teaching hospitals of various sizes. The reported incidence of needlestick and other sharps injuries was 1.30 and 1.21 per person in the past 12 months, respectively. Of most recent episodes of needlestick/sharps injury, 52.0% were caused by ordinary syringe needles, usually in the patient units. The most frequently reported circumstances of needlestick were recapping of needles, and those of sharps injuries were opening of ampoules/vials. Of needles which stuck the health-care workers, 54.8% had been used in patients, 8.2% of whom were known to have hepatitis B or C, syphilis, or human immunodeficiency virus infection. Sharps injuries in health-care workers in Taiwan occur more frequently than generally thought and risks of contracting blood-borne infectious diseases as a result are very high. (+info)
National epidemiology of mycoses survey (NEMIS): variations in rates of bloodstream infections due to Candida species in seven surgical intensive care units and six neonatal intensive care units.
Candida species are the fourth most frequent cause of nosocomial bloodstream infections, and 25%-50% occur in critical care units. During an 18-month prospective study period, all patients admitted for > or = 72 hours to the surgical (SICUs) or neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) at each of the participant institutions were followed daily. Among 4,276 patients admitted to the seven SICUs in six centers, there were 42 nosocomial bloodstream infections due to Candida species (9.8/1,000 admissions; 0.99/1,000 patient-days). Of 2,847 babies admitted to the six NICUs, 35 acquired a nosocomial bloodstream infection due to Candida species (12.3/1,000 admissions; 0.64/1,000 patient-days). The following were the most commonly isolated Candida species causing bloodstream infections in the SICU: Candida albicans, 48%; Candida glabrata, 24%; Candida tropicalis, 19%; Candida parapsilosis, 7%; Candida species not otherwise specified, 2%. In the NICU the distribution was as follows: C. albicans, 63%; C. glabrata, 6%; C. parapsilosis, 29%; other, 3%. Of the patients, 30%-50% developed incidental stool colonization, 23% of SICU patients developed incidental urine colonization, and one-third of SICU health care workers' hands were positive for Candida species. (+info)
Risk of influenza A (H5N1) infection among health care workers exposed to patients with influenza A (H5N1), Hong Kong.
The first outbreak of avian influenza A (H5N1) occurred among humans in Hong Kong in 1997. To estimate the risk of person-to-person transmission, a retrospective cohort study was conducted to compare the prevalence of H5N1 antibody among health care workers (HCWs) exposed to H5N1 case-patients with the prevalence among nonexposed HCWs. Information on H5N1 case-patient and poultry exposures and blood samples for H5N1-specific antibody testing were collected. Eight (3.7%) of 217 exposed and 2 (0.7%) of 309 nonexposed HCWs were H5N1 seropositive (P=.01). The difference remained significant after controlling for poultry exposure (P=.01). This study presents the first epidemiologic evidence that H5N1 viruses were transmitted from patients to HCWs. Human-to-human transmission of avian influenza may increase the chances for the emergence of a novel influenza virus with pandemic potential. (+info)
Nosocomial transmission of Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin to children receiving cancer therapy and to their health care providers.
A previous report of nosocomial infection due to Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) implicated contamination of chemotherapy solutions reconstituted under the same biosafety hood as BCG vaccine used for bladder cancer therapy. We report 3 similar BCG infections in children and describe evidence of respiratory transmission to health care workers (HCWs) from 1 patient. These children were receiving chemotherapy for leukemia when they presented with active tuberculosis. Each isolate was identified biochemically and by both gas-liquid chromatography and major polymorphic tandem repeat-polymerase chain reaction. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that 2 isolates were identical strains and identical to the Tice and Connaught strains licensed in the United States for bladder chemotherapy. The third isolate differed by a single fragment after DraI restriction. One patient with heavily positive sputum exposed numerous HCWs. Of 41 HCWs, 2 (5%) converted their purified protein derivatives (PPD) skin test. These data underscore the risk of nosocomial BCG transmission by contamination of chemotherapy solutions and demonstrate the potential for transmission to HCWs from patients with active pulmonary disease. (+info)
Transmission of Pneumocystis carinii DNA from a patient with P. carinii pneumonia to immunocompetent contact health care workers.
The transmission of Pneumocystis carinii from person to person was studied by detecting P. carinii-specific DNA in prospectively obtained noninvasive deep-nasal-swab samples from a child with a documented P. carinii pneumonia (PCP), his mother, two contact health care workers, and 30 hospital staff members who did not enter the patient's room (controls). Nested-DNA amplification was done by using oligonucleotide primers designed for the gene encoding the mitochondrial large subunit rRNA of rat P. carinii (P. carinii f. sp. carinii) that amplifies all forms of P. carinii and internal primers specific for human P. carinii (f. sp. hominis). P. carinii f. sp. hominis DNA was detected in samples from the patient and all of his contacts versus none of the 30 hospital staff members. The results, as previously shown in murine models of P. carinii pneumonia, document that person-to-person transmission of P. carinii is possible. This observation suggests that immunocompromised patients not on PCP prophylaxis should not enter the room of a patient with PCP, and it also raises the question as to whether healthy contacts can transmit the disease to immunocompromised patients at risk. (+info)