Ceftriaxone-resistant salmonella infection acquired by a child from cattle.
BACKGROUND: The emergence of resistance to antimicrobial agents within the salmonellae is a worldwide problem that has been associated with the use of antibiotics in livestock. Resistance to ceftriaxone and the fluoroquinolones, which are used to treat invasive salmonella infections, is rare in the United States. We analyzed the molecular characteristics of a ceftriaxone-resistant strain of Salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium isolated from a 12-year-old boy with fever, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. METHODS: We used pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and analysis of plasmids and beta-lactamases to compare the ceftriaxone-resistant S. enterica serotype typhimurium from the child with four isolates of this strain obtained from cattle during a local outbreak of salmonellosis. RESULTS: The ceftriaxone-resistant isolate from the child was indistinguishable from one of the isolates from cattle, which was also resistant to ceftriaxone. Both ceftriaxone-resistant isolates were resistant to 13 antimicrobial agents; all but one of the resistance determinants were on a conjugative plasmid of 160 kb that encoded the functional group 1 beta-lactamase CMY-2. Both ceftriaxone-resistant isolates were closely related to the three other salmonella isolates obtained from cattle, all of which were susceptible to ceftriaxone. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides additional evidence that antibiotic-resistant strains of salmonella in the United States evolve primarily in livestock. Resistance to ceftriaxone, the drug of choice for invasive salmonella disease, is a public health concern, especially with respect to children, since fluoroquinolones, which can also be used to treat this disease, are not approved for use in children. (+info)
The effect of animal health products on the formation of injection site lesions in subprimals of experimentally injected beef calves.
Two hundred and twenty beef calves were used in an experimental study to determine the occurrence of injection site lesions at slaughter (15 to 18 months of age) following subcutaneous and intramuscular injection of various products into the top hip (top butt), thigh (round), and neck or rib of calves at birth, branding, or weaning. Products tested were: 2 different preparations of selenium; a 2-way, a 7-way, and an 8-way clostridial bacterin; 2 combination 7-way clostridial and Haemophilus somnus bacterins; 2 H. somnus bacterins; 2 different 4-way modified-live viral respiratory vaccines; a 4-way killed viral and H. somnus vaccine; and penicillin, florfenicol, ceftiofur, trimethoprim-sulfa, and tilmicosin. The occurrence of lesions, number of steaks affected with lesions, the trim weight of lesions, the histological class of lesions, and the estimated economic losses are described. Generally, products administered subcutaneously in the neck produced minimal tissue damage and economic losses. (+info)
Lifestyle and environmental contribution to male infertility.
This chapter is an overview of recent developments in our understanding and thinking about the importance and nature of environmental effects on sperm counts and fertility in the human male. This area is plagued by imperfect studies, not necessarily because of imperfect design but because of other 'uncontrollable' constraints. The available data, therefore, need to be placed in context and account taken of the limitations of our understanding or, more correctly, our ignorance. As we enter the new millennium, one of the saddest scientific aspects of human reproduction and infertility is our persisting ignorance about the causes and treatment of male infertility. With one notable exception (Y chromosome microdeletions) there has been little advance in our understanding of the causes of male infertility and its direct treatment over the past 20 years. Although most infertile men can now be offered the chance of fertility via ICSI, it is largely ignored that this does not represent treatment of the patient's infertility (which will persist unchanged), but is a means of circumventing the problem and leaving it for the next generation to tackle. There are many reasons for our ignorance about the causes of infertility, and some of these are outlined below in order to emphasise how this limits our ability to establish whether or not specific lifestyle and environmental factors do, or do not, affect human male reproductive function. (+info)
Severe intoxication with the veterinary tranquilizer xylazine in humans.
Xylazine (Rompun, Proxylaz) is a veterinary tranquilizing agent. A case of self-injection of 1.5 g xylazine by a 27-year-old farmer is reported. He subsequently became comatose, hypotensive, bradycardic, and mildly glycemic. An intensive supportive therapy including intubation and ventilation was required. The patient made a full recovery over the next 30 h. The largest concentrations measured were 4.6 mg/L in plasma, 446 mg/L in gastric fluid, and 194 mg/L in urine. The calculated plasma half-life was 4.9 h. Kinetic data correlated with clinical symptoms. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of xylazine were done by thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and high-performance liquid chromatography. These methods allow the detection of small amounts substance in stomach, plasma, and urine. Liquid-liquid extraction was used for the isolation of drug. The sensitvity is high, and with these methods, a rapid analysis is possible. Xylazine intoxications in humans are rare. We describe the management of acute poisoning and present a review of xylazine toxicity in humans. (+info)
Identification and expression of cephamycinase bla(CMY) genes in Escherichia coli and Salmonella isolates from food animals and ground meat.
Twenty-one Salmonella and 54 Escherichia coli isolates, recovered from food animals and retail ground meats, that exhibited decreased susceptibilities to ceftiofur and ceftriaxone were shown to possess a bla(CMY) gene. The bla(CMY-4) gene was identified in an E. coli isolate recovered from retail chicken and was further shown to be responsible for resistance to cephalothin, ampicillin, and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and elevated MICs of ceftriaxone, cefoxitin, and ceftiofur. (+info)
Foreign establishment registration and listing. Final rule.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final rule to amend its regulations pertaining to the registration of foreign establishments and the listing of human drugs, animal drugs, biological products, and devices. The final rule requires foreign establishments whose products are imported or offered for import into the United States to register with FDA and to identify a United States agent. The final rule implements section 417 of the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 (FDAMA) as it pertains to foreign establishment registration. (+info)
The crucial question of standardisation when measuring drug consumption.
The reliability of drug consumption studies will depend on agreement on an international unit of measurement and the provision of accurate descriptions of patterns of use. This measurement unit should permit comparisons between countries and periods of time. Different units have been proposed and published. Consumption may be expressed in terms of pharmaceutical firm turnover, therapeutic costs, weight (total weight or dose equivalent), treatment doses such as defined daily dose and prescribed daily dose, or as number of items or packages sold. The advantages and disadvantages of the different evaluation units used in veterinary medicine are reviewed. (+info)
Antimicrobial drug use and resistance in dogs.
Fifteen years (1984-1998) of records from a Veterinary Teaching Hospital were analyzed to determine whether antimicrobial drug resistance in coagulase-positive Staphylococcus spp. (S. aureus, S. intermedius) isolated from clinical infections in dogs has increased, and whether there has been a change in the species of bacteria isolated from urinary tract infections in dogs. In coagulase-positive Staphylococcus spp., a complex pattern showing both increases and decreases of resistance to different classes of antimicrobial drugs was observed, reflecting the changing use of different antimicrobial drug classes in the hospital over a similar period (1990-1999). In canine urinary tract infections identified from 1984 to 1998, an increase in the incidence of multiresistant Enterococcus spp. was apparent, with marginal increases also in incidence in Enterobacter spp. and in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, both of which, like Enterococcus spp., are innately antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. A survey of directors of veterinary teaching hospitals in Canada and the United States identified only 3 hospitals that had any policy on use of "last resort" antimicrobial drugs (amikacin, imipenem, vancomycin). Evidence is briefly reviewed that owners may be at risk when dogs are treated with antimicrobial drugs, as well as evidence that some resistant bacteria may be acquired by dogs as a result of antimicrobial drug use in agriculture. Based in part on gaps in our knowledge, recommendations are made on prudent use of antimicrobial drugs in companion animals, as well as on the need to develop science-based infection control programs in veterinary hospitals. (+info)