Knowledge and practices about HIV transmission among barbers of Nagpur City.
The present study was carried out in south zone of Nagpur city to assess knowledge and practices regarding HIV transmission of 375 barbers selected randomly from three different categories of saloons. A significantly large proportion of the roadside barbers were ignorant about modes of transmission of HIV, particularly through the blades. The practices observed by barbers ae found to be favourable for transmission of HIV, more so in roadside barbers. Hence it can be concluded that practices observed by barbers may favour transmission of HIV and there is a scope for educational intervention. (+info)
Incidence of asthma in female Swedish hairdressers.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk of asthma in hairdressers. METHODS: The incidence of asthma was retrospectively estimated in a Swedish nationwide study including all female hairdressers certified from vocational schools from 1970 to 1995, and a stratified sample of women from the general population were referents. A postal questionnaire included questions on respiratory tract symptoms, atopy, smoking, working periods as a hairdresser, and number of specific hair treatments performed/week. Reported exposures were validated by occupational hygienists. Rate ratios of incidence (IRRs) of asthma were estimated by Poisson regression, adjusted for calendar year of observation, hay fever, smoking, and region of domicile. RESULTS: The crude incidences of asthma/1000 person-years were: 3.9 during active years as a hairdresser, 2.8 among the hairdressers when not working in the profession, and 3.1 among the referents. The corresponding IRR for being an active hairdresser compared with the referents was 1.3 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.0 to 1.6). Moderate effects on risk of asthma were found both from hairdressing work (IRR=1.6 (1.1 to 2.2) among never-smokers) and from smoking (IRR=1.6 (1.2 to 2.2) among referents). However, the combined effect from hairdressing work and smoking (IRR=1.5 (1.0 to 2.1)) was less than expected (p=0.02). No effect modification by respiratory atopy was found. The hairdressers most often performing hair bleaching treatments (IRR=1.5 (0.7 to 3.0)) or using hair spray (IRR=1.4 (0.8 to 2.4)) had, compared with the most infrequent users, a slightly, but not significantly higher incidence of asthma. Exposure to persulphates in hair bleach was estimated to be 0.04-0.15 mg/m(3) during mixing of the powder. Reported average number of bleaching treatments agreed well with those performed according to a diary. CONCLUSIONS: Active hairdressing work was associated with a moderately increased incidence of asthma among lifelong non-smokers. The results are moderately supportive, but not conclusive, of associations between asthma and exposure to hair bleach or hair spray. (+info)
Prevalence of hepatitis B and C virus infection in barbers in the Sivas region of Turkey.
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections are among the most devastating health problems in the world, including Turkey. The route of transmission of HBV and HCV is mainly parenteral, a small number of epidemiological studies demonstrating that perinatal, sexual, household and occupational transmission occurs. Contact of a patient's blood or bodily fluids with non-intact skin is another mode of HBV and HCV transmission. Barbers in Turkey may often be exposed accidentally to the blood and bodily fluids of their customers. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HBV and HCV infection in barbers. We conducted a study to determine the prevalence of antibodies against HBV and HCV among 176 barbers and 180 control subjects in the Sivas region of Turkey. The prevalence of HBV and HCV was found to be higher in barbers (39.8 and 2.8%, respectively) than in a comparison group (28.3 and 1.1%, respectively). No significant relationship was found with the duration of occupation. Among the seropositive subjects, it was found that most had been exposed to needle pricks or scissor cuts. Our data suggest that both HBV and HCV infections may constitute occupational hazards for barbers. The sources of infection could be not only such personal risk factors as 'sharps' injuries and scissor cuts, but may also include other unknown factors. (+info)
An outbreak of mycobacterial furunculosis associated with footbaths at a nail salon.
BACKGROUND: In September 2000, a physician in northern California described four patients with persistent, culture-negative boils on the lower extremities. The patients had received pedicures at the same nail salon. We identified and investigated an outbreak of Mycobacterium fortuitum furunculosis among customers of this nail salon. METHODS: Patients were defined as salon customers with persistent skin infections below the knee. A case-control study was conducted that included the first 48 patients identified, and 56 unaffected friends and family members who had had a pedicure at the same salon served as controls. Selected M. fortuitum isolates, cultured from patients and the salon environment, were compared by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. RESULTS: We identified 110 customers of the nail salon who had furunculosis. Cultures from 34 were positive for rapidly growing mycobacteria (32 M. fortuitum and 2 unidentified). Most of the affected patients had more than 1 boil (median, 2; range, 1 to 37). All patients and controls had had whirlpool footbaths. Shaving the legs with a razor before pedicure was a risk factor for infection (70 percent of patients vs. 31 percent of controls; adjusted odds ratio, 4.8; 95 percent confidence interval, 2.1 to 11.1). Cultures from all 10 footbaths at the salon yielded M. fortuitum. The M. fortuitum isolates from three footbaths and 14 patients were indistinguishable by electrophoresis. CONCLUSIONS: We identified a large outbreak of rapidly growing mycobacterial infections among persons who had had footbaths and pedicures at one nail salon. Physicians should suspect this cause in patients with persistent furunculosis after exposure to whirlpool footbaths. (+info)
Occupational exposure to hairdressing chemicals and immunoglobulin E synthesis.
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the effect of exposure to hairdressing chemicals on total and allergen-specific serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) in hairdressers. METHODS: The study was based on a questionnaire sent to 100 hairdressers (91% responding) and a reference group of 95 office workers (84% responding). The questionnaire sought information on allergy, respiratory symptoms during the past year, work conditions (exposure), and smoking habits. The hairdressers were divided into two groups, one of high exposure and another of low exposure. Total serum IgE and allergen-specific IgE towards the most prevalent airborne allergens were analyzed. RESULTS: The serum levels of total IgE were significantly higher among the highly exposed hairdressers than among the office workers. The prevalence of asthma-like respiratory symptoms during the past year was significantly higher among the highly exposed hairdressers than among the office workers. The total serum IgE level was significantly higher among the hairdressers than among the office workers (101 versus 51 IU/ml blood), but this difference disappeared after adjustment for age, atopy, and smoking. A total of 5.5% of the hairdressers versus none of the office workers had specific serum IgE antibodies towards latex. There were no differences in general allergy (Phadiatop) among the hairdressers and office workers. CONCLUSIONS: Serum levels of total IgE were significantly higher among highly exposed hairdressers than among office workers. The relationship could not be completely explained by such covariables as age, smoking, or sensitization to latex allergens. (+info)
The clinical management and outcome of nail salon-acquired Mycobacterium fortuitum skin infection.
Nontuberculous mycobacterial infections are becoming more common. Recently, Mycobacterium fortuitum and other rapidly growing mycobacteria have been found to cause severe skin and soft-tissue infections in association with nail salon whirlpool footbaths. We recently investigated a large outbreak of M. fortuitum furunculosis among women who received pedicures at a single nail salon. To better define the clinical course of such infections, we collected clinical details from physicians who were treating outbreak patients. We constructed multivariable linear models to evaluate the effect of antibiotic treatment on disease duration. Sixty-one patients were included in the investigation. The mean disease duration was 170 days (range, 41-336 days). Forty-eight persons received antibiotic therapy for a median period of 4 months (range, 1-6 months), and 13 persons were untreated. Isolates were most susceptible to ciprofloxacin and minocycline. Early administration of therapy was associated with shorter duration of disease only in persons with multiple boils (P<.01). One untreated, healthy patient had lymphatic disease dissemination. (+info)
Reconnaissance study of sunbed use by primary school children in Lanarkshire.
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to swiftly gain insight into anecdotal evidence that primary school children in local schools were using sunbeds. METHODS: A seven-question questionnaire was conducted by school nurses in 23 primary schools in the Wishaw Local Health Care Co-operative catchment area. Children in primary classes 4 (aged 8-9) and 6/7 (aged 10-11) took part in the classroom surveys. Positive responses were counted by a show of hands by the children. RESULTS: A total of 1405 children took part in the survey. Of these, 48 per cent expressed a desire to use a sunbed and 7 per cent (96 children) had actually used a sunbed in the last 6 months. Of the 96 who professed to using a sunbed, 16 used one regularly, 61 gained access to a sunbed in someone's house, and 21 had used a sunbed in a shop or salon. Twenty-nine (30 per cent) admitted that they had suffered sore skin or sore eyes after sunbed use. CONCLUSION: This preliminary survey suggests that a significant number of primary school children may be using tanning devices either in the home or on commercial premises. More rigorous research is urgently required to test these findings. The precautionary principle suggests that public action is justified on present evidence. (+info)
Furunculosis due to Mycobacterium mageritense associated with footbaths at a nail salon.
We report two cases of lower-extremity furunculosis caused by Mycobacterium mageritense. Both patients were patrons of the same nail salon, where they received footbaths prior to pedicures. M. mageritense bacteria isolated from two whirlpool footbaths were determined to be closely related to the patient isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. (+info)