Diplopia in a swimmer due to badly fitting goggles. (1/109)

An unusual effect of badly fitting swimming goggles is described. The goggles pressed on the trochlea of the left eye, interfering with the action of the superior oblique muscle. Diplopia resulted, which took several weeks to resolve.  (+info)

The effects of strapped spectacles on the fit factors of three manufactured brands of full facepiece negative pressure respirators. (2/109)

A study was conducted to determine the effects of strapped spectacles on the fit factors obtained during quantitative fit testing on three different brands of full facepiece negative pressure respirators. The three brands of respirators were evaluated with and without strapped spectacles worn by the test subjects. A total of 180 quantitative fit testing trials were conducted on ten male test subjects. For each test subject, three quantitative fit testing trials were performed with each brand of respirator with and without the spectacles. The average of the fit testing trials for each subject with each respirator was used for statistical analysis. The results demonstrated that the fit factor values were significantly lower during use of the spectacles (p < 0.05). The estimated percentage of test subjects who failed the American National Standards Institute pass/fail criteria for quantitative fit testing (1000) increased by 15-36% when spectacles were worn.  (+info)

Increasing paintball related eye trauma reported to a state eye injury registry. (3/109)

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate an apparent increase in documented trauma from paintball related eye injuries reported to the Eye Injury Registry of Indiana. METHODS: A retrospective review of cases reported to the database is reported, with representative case histories. RESULTS: No injuries from paintball were reported during the period June 1992 to June 1996. Over the next two years 11 injuries were reported, representing 4% of all ocular trauma reports over this period. Visual outcome is poor in many of these eyes and more than one half present with posterior segment ocular injury. CONCLUSIONS: Severe ocular trauma results from impacts from paintball pellets, and the occurrence of injuries appears to be increasing due to growth in popularity of this war game. Diligent use of eye protection by all participants is necessary to prevent a continuing rise in ocular trauma prevalence from this activity.  (+info)

Task-dependent constraints in motor control: pinhole goggles make the head move like an eye. (4/109)

In the 19th century, Donders observed that only one three-dimensional eye orientation is used for each gaze direction. Listing's law further specifies that the full set of eye orientation vectors forms a plane, whereas the equivalent Donders' law for the head, the Fick strategy, specifies a twisted two-dimensional range. Surprisingly, despite considerable research and speculation, the biological reasons for choosing one such range over another remain obscure. In the current study, human subjects performed head-free gaze shifts between visual targets while wearing pinhole goggles. During fixations, the head orientation range still obeyed Donders' law, but in most subjects, it immediately changed from the twisted Fick-like range to a flattened Listing-like range. Further controls showed that this was not attributable to loss of binocular vision or increased range of head motion, nor was it attributable to blocked peripheral vision; when subjects pointed a helmet-mounted laser toward targets (a task with goggle-like motor demands but normal vision), the head followed Listing's law even more closely. Donders' law of the head only broke down (in favor of a "minimum-rotation strategy") when head motion was dissociated from gaze. These behaviors could not be modeled using current "Donders' operators" but were readily simulated nonholonomically, i.e., by modulating head velocity commands as a function of position and task. We conclude that the gaze control system uses such velocity rules to shape Donders' law on a moment-to-moment basis, not primarily to satisfy perceptual or anatomic demands, but rather for motor optimization; the Fick strategy optimizes the role of the head as a platform for eye movement, whereas Listing's law optimizes rapid control of the eye (or head) as a gaze pointer.  (+info)

Increase in peripheral blood flow due to extraocular direct irradiation of visible light in rats. (5/109)

We have conducted experiments to clarify the existence of extraretinal photosensitivity in mammals through the measurements of skin blood flow variation due to light irradiation. We found that blood flow shows a synchronized transient increase with a irradiation-nonirradiation sequence. The action spectrum of the phenomenon was found to show peaks at approximately 410-420 nm, 540-550 nm, and 570- 580 nm. These peaks coincide with the specific optical absorption peaks of B and Q (alpha,beta) bands in sixfold coordinated ferruos-heme complexes such as nitric oxide (NO)-Hb. The blood flow increase in the irradiated duration disappears when the rats are intraperitoneally injected with 1H-[1,2,3]oxydiazolo[4,3-a] quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), which is an inhibitor of guanylate cyclase, and N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine acetate and N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, which are inhibitors of NO synthase. On the basis of the present results, we propose a photochemical model of the photosensitivity mechanism where optical absorption of the sixfold coordinated ferrous heme-NO complex plays a main role.  (+info)

Acceptability of baseball face guards and reduction of oculofacial injury in receptive youth league players. (6/109)

GOALS: To assess the relative injury reduction effect and acceptability of face guards on batter's helmets. METHODS: A non-randomized prospective cohort study among 238 youth league baseball teams in Central and Southern Indiana during the 1997 season. Coaches, parents, and players were asked to respond to pre-season and post-season questionnaires. Approximately one half of the teams were supplied with face guard helmets (intervention); all others used this protection at their discretion (comparison). RESULTS: Parents, players, and coaches on the intervention teams reported a reduction in the incidence of oculofacial injuries compared with comparison team respondents (p=0.04). There was no reported adverse effect of face guard use on player performance. CONCLUSIONS: Helmet face guards should be required for batters to prevent facial injuries in baseball.  (+info)

Users' demands regarding dental safety glasses. Combining a quantitative approach and grounded theory for the data analysis. (7/109)

Eye infections are common among dentists and many are concerned, but few are using proper eye protection. To understand users' demands behind the low use of safety glasses, all dental teams in Sweden were asked which factors they found most important when choosing dental safety glasses, and rate the importance of 31 statements regarding ergonomic aspects of dental safety glasses in a questionnaire. Data were analysed using the Grounded Theory and a quantitative approach. Results showed that dentists ranked the visual aspects as most important and chair assistants the protective aspects. The highly visual demanding work performed by dentists requires safety glasses that are not yet available on the market, which might explain the low use.  (+info)

Radioprotection to the eye during CT scanning. (8/109)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The lens of the eye is sensitive to radiation. Children undergoing CT of the head and patients undergoing repeated CT scanning of the head are vulnerable to this complication. The purpose of this study was to test the ability of a heavy metal, bismuth, in reducing radiation to the lens of the eye during routine cranial CT. METHODS: Both phantom and human studies were done. Using a standard head-attenuating phantom, scanning was performed with detectors placed over the eye, first without the protectors, and then with shielding by one (1T), two (2T), or three thickness (3T) of bismuth-coated latex. The patient study included 30 patients randomized into one of three groups with eye protection provided by 1T, 2T, or 3T of the bismuth-coated latex. Control measurements were done using thermoluminescent dosimeters over the forehead above each eye. Image artifact from the bismuth shields was assessed. RESULTS: The phantom study demonstrated that the use of bismuth-coated shielding over the eyes decreased radiation dosage by 48.5%, 59.8%, and 65.4% using 1T, 2T, and 3T, respectively. The effect of eye shielding in decreasing radiation dosage to the eye was highly significant for all three thicknesses (P = 2.9 x 10(-81) to 1.9 x 10(-89)). In the patient study, the use of 1T, 2T, and 3T of bismuth-coated latex saved an average radiation dose of 39.6%, 43.5%, and 52.8%, respectively. While the use of shielding was statistically significant in saving radiation for all thicknesses (P = 2.2 x 10(-10) to 1.4 x 10(-21)), there was no statistical difference between 1T, 2T, and 3T of bismuth-coated latex shielding found in patients. However, the trend was for increased radiation savings to the eye with increased thickness of shielding used. A review of all 30 studies showed no significant artifact caused by the eye shielding, regardless of thickness. CONCLUSION: Bismuth-coated latex shielding of the eye during cranial CT is simple to apply, inexpensive, and causes up to a 50% reduction in radiation to the lens of the eye.  (+info)