Developmental expression patterns of Bcl-2, Bcl-x, Bax, and Bak in teeth.
The ontogenic profile of expression of four members of the Bcl-2 family (Bcl-2, Bcl-x, Bax and Bak) was examined in the mouse by immunohistochemistry using paraffin sections. All four members were expressed in changing patterns during critical stages of tooth morphogenesis. Expression was detected in epithelial cell populations including the dental lamina, internal dental epithelium (IDE; differentiating ameloblasts), stratum intermedium and stellate reticulum cells, as well as in the condensed dental mesenchyme. The temporo-spatial localization of the various members of the Bcl-2 family in dental epithelium and mesenchyme showed striking overlapping areas but often their expression patterns differed. In general, contemporaneous co-expression of the Bcl-2 and Bax proteins, and of the Bcl-x and Bak proteins was noted in various types of cells during the developmental process, with the intensity of Bcl-2>Bax and of Bak>Bcl-x. Expression was pronounced at sites where interaction between surface ectoderm and induced mesenchyme takes place, and at the enamel knot, which is regarded as organization/regulating center for tooth development. Around birth, after the structural maturation was accomplished, the expression was down-regulated. The absence of elevated expression of each of these four members of the Bcl-2 family after birth in the teeth suggests that these proteins are relevant during the accomplishment of the basic architecture but not once the structure of the tooth is established. (+info)
Australopithecus garhi: a new species of early hominid from Ethiopia.
The lack of an adequate hominid fossil record in eastern Africa between 2 and 3 million years ago (Ma) has hampered investigations of early hominid phylogeny. Discovery of 2.5 Ma hominid cranial and dental remains from the Hata beds of Ethiopia's Middle Awash allows recognition of a new species of Australopithecus. This species is descended from Australopithecus afarensis and is a candidate ancestor for early Homo. Contemporary postcranial remains feature a derived humanlike humeral/femoral ratio and an apelike upper arm-to-lower arm ratio. (+info)
Clinical trial of three 10% carbamide peroxide bleaching products.
BACKGROUND: A profusion of commercial bleaching systems exists on the market today, but there are few clinical comparisons of these systems. METHODS: In this study, three different commercial 10% carbamide peroxide bleaching systems were used by 24 patients in an overnight protocol for two weeks. Each patient used two of the bleaching products simultaneously in a side-by-side comparison. RESULTS: The mean onset of tooth whitening was 2.4 +/- 1.7 days. Tooth sensitivity was the most frequent side effect, as 64% of the patients reported tooth sensitivity occurring after 4.8 +/- 4.1 days and lasting for 5.0 +/- 3.8 days. Although intrapatient differences were recorded for the three commercial 10% carbamide peroxide bleaching systems by the patients, there were no statistical differences in the time of onset of subjective tooth whitening and the onset, frequency and duration of tooth sensitivity among the three commercial bleaching systems when compared pairwise or independently (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Selection of which bleaching product to use should be based on the concentration of the active ingredient, the viscosity of the product and other marketing features. Further research is needed to investigate the causes of tooth sensitivity and methods to reduce its severity and frequency. (+info)
Blastogenic response of human lymphocytes to oral bacterial antigens: comparison of individuals with periodontal disease to normal and edentulous subjects.
Cell-mediated immunity in humans to antigens derived from oral plaque bacteria was investigated by using the lymphocyte blastogenesis assay. Subjects with varying severities of periodontal disease including normal, gingivitis, periodontitis, and edentulous were compared. Mononuclear leukocytes were separated from peripheral blood and cultured with antigens prepared by sonication of Actinomyces viscosus (AV), Actinomyces naeslundii (AN), Veillonella alcalescens (VA), Leptotrichia buccalis (LB), Bacteroides melaninogenicus (BM), and homologous dental plaque (DP). The lymphocyte response of subjects with gingivitis or periodontitis was significantly greater than that of normal subjects to antigens of AV, AN, and DP, but did not differ from the response of edentulous subjects. Periodontitis subjects were significantly more reactive than edentulous and normal subjects in response to VA, LB, and BM. These findings suggest that the tested gram-negative bacteria and the host response they evoke are associated with advanced periodontal destruction. (+info)
Immunohistological distributions of fibronectin, tenascin, type I, III and IV collagens, and laminin during tooth development and degeneration in fetuses of minke whale, Balaenoptera acutorostrata.
The immunohistological distributions of fibronectin, tenascin, type I, III and IV collagens, and laminin were observed in the tooth buds of fetuses of minke whale, Balaenoptera acutorostrata. Distributions of extracellular matrices (ECMs) examined in this study except for tenascin were generally similar to those of terrestrial mammalian species during development of the tooth bud. Tenascin in the fetuses of minke whale showed characteristic distributions in the dental lamina and the enamel organ in the early tooth developmental stage. In the physiological degeneration stage of tooth bud development, immunoreactivity of the ECMs were very weakly and limitedly detected in the dental papilla and the surrounding mesenchyme. Immunoreactivity of tenascin and type I and III collagens were positively detected in the developing baleen plate germ which was associated with the degenerating tooth bud. These findings suggested that expressions of the ECMs were related to the formation of the tooth bud and baleen plate germ, and that the lack of the ECMs was related to the degeneration of the tooth bud in the fetal minke whale. (+info)
Cbfa1 is required for epithelial-mesenchymal interactions regulating tooth development in mice.
Osteoblasts and odontoblasts, cells that are responsible for the formation of bone and dentin matrices respectively, share several molecular characteristics. Recently, Cbfa1 was shown to be a critical transcriptional regulator of osteoblast differentiation. Mutations in this gene cause cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD), an autosomal dominant disorder in humans and mice characterized by defective bone formation. CCD also results in dental defects that include supernumerary teeth and delayed eruption of permanent dentition. The dental abnormalities in CCD suggest an important role for this molecule in the formation of dentition. Here we describe results of studies aimed at understanding the functions of Cbfa1 in tooth formation. RT-PCR and in situ hybridization analyses show that Cbfa1 has a unique expression pattern in dental mesenchyme from the bud to early bell stages during active epithelial morphogenesis. Unlike that observed in osteoblast differentiation, Cbfa1 is downregulated in fully differentiated odontoblasts and is surprisingly expressed in ectodermally derived ameloblasts during the maturation phase of enamel formation. The role of Cbfa1 in tooth morphogenesis is further illustrated by the misshapen and severely hypoplastic tooth organs in Cbfa1-/- mice. These tooth organs lacked overt odontoblast and ameloblast differentiation and normal dentin and enamel matrices. Epithelial-mesenchymal recombinants demonstrate that dental epithelium regulates mesenchymal Cbfa1 expression during the bud and cap stages and that these effects are mimicked by the FGFs but not by the BMPs as shown by our bead implantation assays. We propose that Cbfa1 regulates the expression of molecules in mesenchyme that act reciprocally on dental epithelium to control its growth and differentiation. Taken together, our data indicate a non-redundant role for Cbfa1 in tooth development that may be distinct from that in bone formation. In odontogenesis, Cbfa1 is not involved in the early signaling networks regulating tooth initiation and early morphogenesis but regulates key epithelial-mesenchymal interactions that control advancing morphogenesis and histodifferentiation of the epithelial enamel organ. (+info)
An mtDNA analysis in ancient Basque populations: implications for haplogroup V as a marker for a major paleolithic expansion from southwestern europe.
mtDNA sequence variation was studied in 121 dental samples from four Basque prehistoric sites, by high-resolution RFLP analysis. The results of this study are corroborated by (1) parallel analysis of 92 bone samples, (2) the use of controls during extraction and amplification, and (3) typing by both positive and negative restriction of the linked sites that characterize each haplogroup. The absence of haplogroup V in the prehistoric samples analyzed conflicts with the hypothesis proposed by Torroni et al., in which haplogroup V is considered as an mtDNA marker for a major Paleolithic population expansion from southwestern Europe, occurring approximately 10,000-15,000 years before the present (YBP). Our samples from the Basque Country provide a valuable tool for checking the previous hypothesis, which is based on genetic data from present-day populations. In light of the available data, the most realistic scenario to explain the origin and distribution of haplogroup V suggests that the mutation defining that haplogroup (4577 NlaIII) appeared at a time when the effective population size was small enough to allow genetic drift to act-and that such drift is responsible for the heterogeneity observed in Basques, with regard to the frequency of haplogroup V (0%-20%). This is compatible with the attributed date for the origin of that mutation (10,000-15, 000 YBP), because during the postglacial period (the Mesolithic, approximately 11,000 YBP) there was a major demographic change in the Basque Country, which minimized the effect of genetic drift. This interpretation does not rely on migratory movements to explain the distribution of haplogroup V in present-day Indo-European populations. (+info)
Expression of Wnt signalling pathway genes during tooth development.
We have carried out comparative in situ hybridisation analysis of six Wnt genes Wnts-3, -4, -5a, -6, -7b, and 10b together with Wnt receptor MFz6 and receptor agonist/antagonists MFrzb1 and Mfrp2 during murine odontogenesis from the earliest formation of the epithelial thickening to the early bell stage. Expression of Wnt-4, Wnt-6, and one Wnt receptor MFz6 was observed in the facial, oral and dental epithelium. Wnt10b was localised specifically to the presumptive dental epithelium. Wnts-3 and -7b were expressed in oral epithelium but showed no expression in the presumptive dental epithelium. Wnt-3 also showed no expression in the epithelial cells of the molar bud stage tooth germs, but showed restricted expression in the enamel knots which are signalling centres believed to be involved in regulating tooth shape. Wnts -6, -10b and MFz6 were also detected in the primary and secondary enamel knots. Wnt-5a and agonist/antagonists MFrzb1 and Mfrp2 were expressed in a graded proximo-distal (P-D) manner in mesenchymal cells during the early stages of tooth development with no overlying expression in the oral or dental epithelium. Wnt-5a and MFrzb1 show strong expression in the dental papilla mesenchyme. (+info)