The disulfide-bonded loop of chromogranin B mediates membrane binding and directs sorting from the trans-Golgi network to secretory granules. (1/53)

The disulfide-bonded loop of chromogranin B (CgB), a regulated secretory protein with widespread distribution in neuroendocrine cells, is known to be essential for the sorting of CgB from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to immature secretory granules. Here we show that this loop, when fused to the constitutively secreted protein alpha1-antitrypsin (AT), is sufficient to direct the fusion protein to secretory granules. Importantly, the sorting efficiency of the AT reporter protein bearing two loops (E2/3-AT-E2/3) is much higher compared with that of AT with a single disulfide-bonded loop. In contrast to endogenous CgB, E2/3-AT-E2/3 does not undergo Ca2+/pH-dependent aggregation in the TGN. Furthermore, the disulfide-bonded loop of CgB mediates membrane binding in the TGN and does so with 5-fold higher efficiency if two loops are present on the reporter protein. The latter finding supports the concept that under physiological conditions, aggregates of CgB are the sorted units of cargo which have multiple loops on their surface leading to high membrane binding and sorting efficiency of CgB in the TGN.  (+info)

Characterisation of N-terminal chromogranin A and chromogranin B in mammals by region-specific radioimmunoassays and chromatographic separation methods. (2/53)

Chromogranin A (CgA) and chromogranin B (CgB) are acidic proteins stored in and released from hormone granules in endocrine and neuroendocrine tissue. The chromogranins are postulated to serve as pro-hormones to generate biologically active peptides, which may influence hormonal release and vascular functions or have antibacterial functions. Although N-terminal and C-terminal regions show some species amino acid homology, the chromogranins as a whole display considerable interspecies differences, which prevents their use in comparative studies of biological functions. We present four new radioimmunoassays for the measurement of defined N-terminal regions of CgA and CgB. A new radioimmunoassay for measurement of intact bovine CgA has also been developed. With these assays and two previously published ones, we have compared the cross-reactivity of chromogranins from man, cattle, sheep, goat, pig and horse and compared adrenomedullar content and serum levels of CgA from these species. We have also studied the influence of peptide concentrations and the ionic strength of the mobile phase on molecular weight estimations. Assays with antibodies directed against the N-terminal parts of CgA and CgB showed sufficient interspecies cross-reactivity to allow comparative quantification of the circulating levels in man, cattle, sheep, goat, pig and horse. Assays measuring the intact human or bovine CgA were not suitable for comparative purposes in samples from sheep, goat, pig and horse. Molecular interactions between vasostatin immunoreactive material and intact bovine CgA were demonstrated in gel permeation studies, suggesting that conclusions about the degree of N-terminal processing from elution profiles should be made with caution. Reliable interspecies comparison of chromogranins is difficult, but measurements with region-specific assays may be helpful to study concentrations of chromogranins and chromogranin-related peptides.  (+info)

Identification and characterization of novel chromogranin B-derived peptides from porcine chromaffin granules by liquid chromatography/electrospray tandem MS. (3/53)

Chromogranin B (CgB) is a regulated secretory protein that is stored in endocrine and neuroendocrine cells. It can be processed proteolytically to small peptide fragments. In the present study three proteolytic products of porcine CgB were obtained after size-exclusion, immunoaffinity, and reversed-phase chromatography, and then identified by electrospray tandem MS. One novel peptide was identified as S586-R602 (SR-17) and is phosphorylated at one or two serine residues. Another novel peptide H603-Q636 (HQ-34), with molecular mass 3815.56 Da, was found to be oxidized at the methionine residue. In addition, a secretolytin-like peptide fragment (KR-11), which is two amino acids shorter than the bovine secretolytin, was found. This is the first report that the C-terminal region of CgB, the homologue of human CCB, is proteolytically processed further into three small peptide fragments.  (+info)

Molecular characterization of frog chromogranin B reveals conservation of selective sequences encoding potential novel regulatory peptides. (4/53)

Chromogranin B (CgB) is a member of the granin family of neuroendocrine secretory proteins, which has been proposed to play a role in secretory granule biogenesis and as a precursor to bioactive peptides. The cloning of CgB in a phylogenetically distant vertebrate, the frog Rana ridibunda, reveals a modest overall homology (35-40%) with mammalian CgB. However, the sequences of the N- and C-terminal regions are more highly conserved (57-65% amino acid identity) and may give rise to novel regulatory peptides. In frog, intense expression of CgB mRNA was observed in particular structures of the brain and in the distal lobe of the pituitary.  (+info)

Localization of the secretory granule marker protein chromogranin B in the nucleus. Potential role in transcription control. (5/53)

Chromogranins A (CGA) and B (CGB) are two major Ca(2+) storage proteins of the secretory granules of neuroendocrine cells. Nevertheless, we found in the present study that CGB was also localized in the nucleus. In immunogold electron microscopy using bovine adrenal medullary chromaffin cells, it was found that the number of CGB-labeled gold particles localized per microm(2) of the nucleus was equivalent to 20% that of CGB-labeled gold particles localized per microm(2) of the secretory granules. Considering that CGB is estimated to exist in the 0.1-0.2-mm range in the secretory granules of bovine chromaffin cells, 20% of these amounts to 20-40 microm. In addition, transfection of CGA and CGB into nonneuroendocrine COS-7 and NIH3T3 cells repeatedly indicated the nuclear localization of CGB in addition to its usual localization in the cytoplasm. Moreover, immunoblot and immunogold electron microscopy analyses of neuroendocrine PC12 cells also showed the existence of endogenous CGB in both the cytosol and the nucleus. Nuclear routing of CGB did not appear to depend entirely upon the nuclear localization signal as some of the nuclear localization signal mutant CGB were still targeted to the nucleus. In gene array assay, CGB was shown to either induce or suppress transcription of many genes including those of transcription factors. Of these we have analyzed eight genes, four induced (zinc finger protein, MEF2C, hCRP2, abLIM) and four suppressed (hcKrox, T3-receptor, troponin C, integrin) using the quantitative reverse transcription-PCR method and spectrophotometry to determine the transcription levels of each mRNA. CGB was shown to increase the transcription of zinc finger protein, MEF2C, hCRP2, and abLIM by 2.5-5-fold while suppressing that of hcKrox, T3-receptor, troponin C, and integrin by 60-75%. Given that MEF2C and hcKrox genes are transcription factors, these results pointed to the transcription control role of CGB in the nucleus.  (+info)

Presence of chromogranin-derived antimicrobial peptides in plasma during coronary artery bypass surgery and evidence of an immune origin of these peptides. (6/53)

Chromogranin A (CGA) and chromogranin B (CGB) are acidic proteins stored in secretory organelles of endocrine cells and neurons. In addition to their roles as helper proteins in the packaging of peptides, they may serve as prohormones to generate biologically active peptides such as vasostatin-1 and secretolytin. These molecules derived from CGA and CGB, respectively, possess antimicrobial properties. The present study demonstrates that plasmatic levels of both vasostatin-1 and secretolytin increase during surgery in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Vasostatin-1 and secretolytin, initially present in plasma at low levels, are released just after skin incision. Consequently, they can be added to enkelytin, an antibacterial peptide derived from proenkephalin A, for the panoply of components acting as a first protective barrier against hypothetical invasion of pathogens, which may occur during surgery. CGA and CGB, more commonly viewed as markers for endocrine and neuronal cells, were also found to have an immune origin. RNA messengers coding for CGB were amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in human monocytes, and immunocytochemical analysis by confocal microscopy revealed the presence of CGA or CGB or both in monocytes and neutrophils. A combination of techniques including confocal microscopic analysis, mass spectrometry measurement, and antibacterial tests allowed for the identification of the positive role of interleukin 6 (IL-6) in the secretolytin release from monocytes in vitro. Because IL-6 release is known to be strongly enhanced during CPB, we suggest a possible relationship between IL-6 and the increased level of secretolytin in patients undergoing CPB.  (+info)

Chromogranin B-induced secretory granule biogenesis: comparison with the similar role of chromogranin A. (7/53)

The two major proteins of secretory granules of secretory cells, chromogranins A (CGA) and B (CGB), have previously been proposed to play key roles in secretory granule biogenesis. Recently, CGA was reported to play an on/off switch role for secretory granule biogenesis. In the present study we found CGB being more effective than CGA in inducing secretory granule formation in non-neuroendocrine NIH3T3 and COS-7 cells. The mean number of dense core granules formed/cell of CGA-transfected NIH3T3 cells was 2.51, whereas that of CGB-transfected cells was 4.02, indicating the formation of 60% more granules in the CGB-transfected cells. Similarly, there were 55% more dense core granules formed in the CGB-transfected COS-7 cells than in the CGA-transfected cells. Moreover, transfection of CGA- and CGB-short interfering RNA (siRNA) into neuroendocrine PC12 cells not only decreased the amount of CGA and CGB expressed but also reduced the number of secretory granules by 41 and 78%, respectively, further suggesting the importance of CGB expression in secretory granule formation.  (+info)

A functional interaction between chromogranin B and the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor/Ca2+ channel. (8/53)

Chromogranins A and B (CGA and CGB) are high capacity, low affinity calcium (Ca2+) storage proteins found in many cell types most often associated with secretory granules of secretory cells but also with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen of these cells. Both CGA and CGB associate with inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (InsP3R) in a pH-dependent manner. At an intraluminal pH of 5.5, as found in secretory vesicles, both CGA and CGB bind to the InsP3R. When the intraluminal pH is 7.5, as found in the ER, CGA totally dissociates from InsP3R, whereas CGB only partially dissociates. To investigate the functional consequences of the interaction between the InsP3R and CGB monomers or CGA/CGB heteromers, purified mouse InsP3R type I were fused to planar lipid bilayers and activated by 2 microM InsP3. In the presence of luminal CGB monomers or CGA/CGB heteromers the InsP3R/Ca2+ channel open probability and mean open time increased significantly. The channel activity remained elevated when the pH was changed to 7.5, a reflection of CGB binding to the InsP3R even at pH 7.5. These results suggest that CGB may play an important modulatory role in the control of Ca2+ release from the ER. Furthermore, the difference in the ability of CGA and CGB to regulate the InsP3R/Ca2+ channel and the variability of CGA/CGB ratios could influence the pattern of InsP3-mediated Ca2+ release.  (+info)