Antibacterials that are used as growth promoters in animal husbandry can affect the release of Shiga-toxin-2-converting bacteriophages and Shiga toxin 2 from Escherichia coli strains.
Antibiotics are commonly used as growth promoters in animal husbandry worldwide. This practice has been linked to the emergence of particular antibiotic-resistant bacteria, and is now controversial. In this study, the ability of growth-promoting antibiotics to induce Shiga toxin (Stx)-converting bacteriophages from Stx-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains was investigated. Subinhibitory concentrations of the antibacterial growth promoters olaquindox, carbadox, tylosin and monensin were used for induction experiments. The amount of mature Stx-converting phage particles released from induced and non-induced cultures was determined, and the production of Stx was simultaneously measured by ELISA. Whereas the quinoxaline-1,4-dioxide-type antibiotics olaquindox and carbadox enhanced the release of Stx-converting phage particles from STEC cells, tylosin and monensin decreased phage induction. The production of Stx increased or decreased simultaneously with the amount of free phages. The results of this study show that particular antibacterial growth promoters can induce Stx phages. In vivo induction of Stx phages from lysogenic STEC may increase the amount of free phages in the intestine and therefore may contribute to the spread of STEC and development of new STEC pathotypes. (+info)
An investigation of the etiology of a mild diarrhea observed in a group of grower/finisher pigs.
An investigation into a mild diarrhea in a group of grower/finisher pigs was carried out in order to determine the etiology. A tiamulin injection and a carbadox-medicated ration were given to pens of pigs in a 2 x 2 factorial experimental design. Pens of pigs were assessed a score, based on the consistency of the feces in the pen, each week. The clinical investigation looked for the intestinal pathogens Brachyspira pilosicoli, B. hyodysenteriae, Lawsonia intracellularis, Salmonella spp., Yersinia spp., transmissible gastroenteritis virus, and rotavirus. Despite a rigorous investigation, the diarrhea was not attributed to any pathogen. A mild colitis was noted among pigs necropsied while affected with diarrhea. Improved diagnostic tools may allow a more effective response to an outbreak of mild disease, while at the same time reducing the amount of antimicrobials used in swine production. (+info)
Brewers dried yeast as a source of mannan oligosaccharides for weanling pigs.
Brewers dried yeast, a source of mannan oligosaccharides (MOS), was assessed as an alternative to an antimicrobial agent (carbadox) for young pigs in two experiments. The yeast contained 5.2% MOS. Agglutination tests confirmed adsorption of several serovars of E. coli and Salmonella spp. onto the yeast product. In Exp. 1, seven replicates (five pigs per pen) of 22-d-old pigs were fed a nonmedicated basal diet or the basal diet with carbadox (55 mg/kg), yeast (3%), or a combination of 3% yeast and 2% citric acid for 28 d. Carbadox did not improve growth performance. Growth rate and feed intake were depressed (P < 0.05) in pigs fed yeast alone or in combination with acid. Log counts of total coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Clostridium perfringens in feces were not affected by diet, but Bifidobacteria spp. counts were lower (P < 0.05) in pigs fed the yeast + acid diet and lactobacilli counts were higher (P < 0.05) in pigs fed yeast. Fecal pH and VFA concentrations and intestinal morphological traits were not consistently affected by diet. Serum IgG levels were elevated in the yeast + acid (P < 0.01) group. In Exp. 2, the effects of yeast and carbadox additions to the diet on enteric microbial populations in young pigs housed in isolation units were evaluated. Pigs (n = 24) were weaned at 11 d of age (4.1 kg BW) and placed in isolation chambers (two pigs per chamber) equipped with individual air filtering systems and excrement containers. Treatments were a nonmedicated basal diet and the basal diet with 55 mg/kg of carbadox or with 3% yeast. Diets were fed for 29 d, then each pig was orally dosed with approximately 9.5 x 10(8) CFU of E. coli K88. Daily fecal E. coli K88 counts were not different (P > 0.05) among treatments, but fecal shedding of carbadox-resistant coliforms was higher (P < 0.01) during the 9-d period in pigs fed carbadox. Total fecal coliforms were consistently lower throughout the postinoculation period in pigs fed yeast (P < 0.05). Yeast reduced colonization oftotal coliforms in the duodenum,jejunum, cecum, and colon, but it did not have a consistent effect on colonization of E. coli K88. Pigs fed yeast tended (P < 0.10) to have higher serum IgG levels than controls. In these experiments, brewers dried yeast and carbadox had minimal effects on growth, microbial populations, and intestinal health traits of early-weaned pigs, but certain serum immunological traits were enhanced by feeding yeast. (+info)
Effect of dietary mannanoligosaccharide and sodium chlorate on the growth performance, acute-phase response, and bacterial shedding of weaned pigs challenged with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium.
A 28-d experiment evaluated the growth, acute-phase response, and bacterial shedding patterns in pigs (n = 96; initially 6.8 +/- 1.3 kg) fed mannanoligosaccharides (MANNAN) and sodium chlorate (CHLORATE) before and after oral challenge with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium (ST). The negative control diet contained no antimicrobial (CON), and the positive control contained carbadox (CARB; 55 ppm). Test diets contained (as-fed basis) MANNAN (1,500 ppm) or CHLORATE (800 ppm). Pigs were fed diets for 14 d and then given ST orally. Pigs fed CARB had greater ADG over the entire study than pigs from other treatments (P < 0.05). During wk 1 to 2, before ST challenge, feed intake (as-fed basis) was lower for pigs fed MANNAN and CHLORATE than pigs fed CARB (P < 0.05). During the final 2 wk, pigs fed CARB had greater feed intake than pigs on other treatments (P < 0.05). Gain/feed was greater for pigs fed CARB in the 2 wk before ST (P < 0.05); however, in wk 3 to 4 after ST, gain/feed was reduced for CON pigs compared to pigs on other treatments (P < 0.05). Serum IGF-I was decreased at 2 and 4 d after ST (P < 0.001), and, overall, IGF-I was greater in pigs fed CARB than CON or CHLORATE (P < 0.05). Serum haptoglobin concentrations were greater (P < 0.001) for all treatments at d 6 compared with d 13 after ST. Overall, haptoglobin was greater for MANNAN than for CARB and CHLORATE (P < 0.05) and tended to be increased (P < 0.06) relative to CON. Interleukin-6 was not affected by treatment or day post-ST challenge. Fecal shedding of salmonellae organisms was less for CHLORATE (P < 0.05) than all other treatments at 7 d after ST. Shedding scores decreased from d 7 to 14 after ST (P < 0.05) for the CON, CARB, and MANNAN treatments. We conclude that feeding MANNAN and CHLORATE before acute enteric disease challenge may support improved gut function as evidenced by improved gain/feed, and that CHLORATE may decrease bacterial shedding. But neither MANNAN nor CHLORATE enhanced growth relative to the absence of dietary antimicrobials, nor was either treatment as effective as CARB following ST challenge. (+info)
Influence of carbadox on fasting oxygen consumption by portal vein-drained organs and by the whole animal in growing pigs.
Fasting O2 consumption by the whole animal (W) and by portal vein-drained organs (PVDO) during the 24- to 30-h postprandial period were measured in seven growing pigs (36.1 +/- 2.3 kg) with catheters chronically placed in the hepatic portal vein, ileal vein, and carotid artery trained to consume 1.2 kg of a 16% CP corn soybean meal basal diet (B) once daily. The pigs were placed individually into an open-circuit, indirect calorimeter and connected to an arteriovenous (A-V) O2 difference analyzer for hourly simultaneous measurements of O2 consumption by W and PVDO. The PVDO O2 consumption was calculated by multiplying the A-V O2 difference by the portal vein blood flow rate derived from constant infusion of a p-aminohippuric acid solution into the ileal vein. After the initial series of hourly measurements, four pigs remained on the B diet and three pigs were fed a B + 55 ppm carbadox diet. Seven days later, the second series of measurements was made. In pigs fed the diet with carbadox added, the hourly W O2 consumptions were not different (P greater than .05) between the initial and second series and averaged 7.5 mL.min-1.kg of BW-1. However, the A-V O2 differences (mL/dL) were reduced (P less than .05) from 4.6 to 4.0 at 24 h, 4.8 to 4.0 at 25 h, and 4.6 to 4.0 at 29 h postprandial and the fractions of W O2 consumption used by PVDO (percentage) were reduced (P less than .05) from 28.6 to 21.6 at 26 h and 25.2 to 18.2 at 27 h postprandial.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) (+info)
Effects of supplementation of beta-glucans on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and immunity in weanling pigs.
Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of beta-glucan on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and immunity in weanling pigs. In Exp. 1, 210 weanling pigs (6.38 +/- 0.92 kg of BW) were fed dietary beta-glucan (0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03, or 0.04%) for 5 wk. In Exp. 2, 168 pigs (6.18 +/- 1.31 kg of BW) were fed no beta-glucan or antibiotics (T1), 0.02% beta-glucan (T2), only antibiotics (T3), or 0.02% beta-glucan with antibiotics (T4) for 8 wk. In Exp. 2, the antibiotics fed were apramycin and carbadox in phase I (0 to 2 wk) and carbadox and chlortetracycline in phase II (3 to 8 wk). During Exp. 2, the performance study was conducted for 5 wk, and the immune response was tested until 8 wk. In Exp. 1, there was a trend for a linear increase (P = 0.068) in ADG as the dietary beta-glucan concentration increased in the diet. The digestibilities of DM, GE, CP, ether extract, Ca, and P increased linearly (P < 0.05) in the beta-glucan-supplemented pigs. In Exp. 2, the overall ADG was greater (P < 0.05) in treatment T4 compared with the control group (T1). Also, except for P, this group showed greater (P < 0.05) nutrient digestibilities than the control group. In Exp. 2, at d 15, 24, and 46 antibody titers were measured by ELISA against Pasteurella multocida type A and D after vaccination with atrophic rhinitis, and they differed significantly (P < 0.05) with no particular trend. Flow cytometry was used to determine porcine lymphocyte subpopulations at 4 and 8 wk of Exp. 2. There was an increase in CD4 cells (P < 0.05) and a trend for an increase in CD8 cells (P < 0.10) at 8 wk in pigs fed the T2 diet compared with the other groups. Overall, increasing the dietary concentrations of beta-glucan did not improve ADG without antibiotic, and in weanling pigs antibiotics seem to be more effective in improving nutrient digestibilities and growth performance than beta-glucan. (+info)
Effects of Acid LAC and Kem-Gest acid blends on growth performance and microbial shedding in weanling pigs.
Weanling pigs with mean initial BW of 6.04 kg (Exp.1) and 5.65 kg (Exp. 2) and mean age at weaning of 18.2 d (Exp. 1) and 17.7 d (Exp. 2) were used in two 5-wk experiments (Exp. 1, n = 180; Exp. 2, n = 300) to evaluate the effects of an organic acid blend (Acid LAC, Kemin Americas Inc., Des Moines, IA) and an inorganic/organic acid blend (Kem-Gest, Kemin Americas Inc.) on weanling pig growth performance and microbial shedding. In Exp. 1, the 5 dietary treatments were 1) negative control, 2) diet 1 + 55 ppm carbadox, 3) diet 1 + 0.4% Acid LAC, 4) diet 1 + 0.2% Kem-Gest, 5) diet 1 + 0.4% Acid LAC and 0.2% Kem-Gest. In Exp. 2, the 6 dietary treatments were diets 1 through 4 corresponding to Exp. 1, plus 5) sequence 1: 0.4% Acid LAC for 7 d followed by 0.2% Kem-Gest for 28 d, and 6) sequence 2: 0.2% Kem-Gest for 7 d followed by 0.4% Acid LAC for 28 d. Pigs were housed at 6 (Exp. 1) or 10 (Exp. 2) pigs/pen. Treatments were fed throughout the experiment in 3 phases: d 0 to 7, d 7 to 21, and d 21 to 35. In Exp. 1, there were no differences (P > 0.05) in ADG, ADFI, or G:F among the dietary treatments at any time during the study. In Exp. 2, throughout the study, pigs fed carbadox (diet 2) and sequence 1 (diet 5) diets had the greatest ADG (d 0 to 35; 262, 294, 257, 257, 292, and 261 g/d, diets 1 through 6, respectively; P < 0.05), greater ADFI than all other acid treatments (P < 0.05), and tended to have greater ADFI than diet 1 (P < 0.10). Fecal pH, Escherichia coli concentrations, and Salmonella presence were determined at d 6, 20, and 34 for Exp. 1, and on d 32 for Exp. 2. For both experiments, there was no effect of treatment on the presence of fecal Salmonella (P > 0.10) at any sampling time. In Exp. 1, fecal E. coli concentrations for pigs fed the carbadox (P < 0.05) diet were greater than for pigs fed the combination diet with 0.4% Acid LAC and 0.2% Kem-Gest on d 34, and the pigs fed the negative control diet tended (P < 0.10) to have greater fecal E. coli concentrations than those fed the combination diet on d 34. In Exp. 2, fecal pH of pigs fed sequence 1 tended to be greater than fecal pH of pigs fed diet 1, diet 4, or sequence 2 (P < 0.10), but there was no dietary effect on fecal E. coli. In Exp. 1, growth performance of pigs fed the Acid LAC and Kem-Gest diets was similar to each other and to that of the carbadox-fed pigs. Adding the combination of 0.4% Acid LAC and 0.2% Kem-Gest to nursery pig diets reduced ADFI and pig growth rate. In Exp. 2, pigs fed the acid sequence of Acid LAC-Kem-Gest had similar growth performance to pigs fed carbadox, and this novel dietary acid sequence may have merit as a replacement for antibiotics in the nursery phase. (+info)
Effects of water and diet acidification with and without antibiotics on weanling pig growth and microbial shedding.
Two 5-wk experiments were conducted to determine the effects of water and diet acidification with and without antibiotics on weanling pig growth performance and microbial shedding. In Exp. 1, 204 pigs (19.2 d of age) were used in a 3 x 2 factorial, with 3 dietary treatments fed with or without water acidification (2.58 mL/L of a propionic acid blend; KEM SAN, Kemin Americas, Des Moines, IA). Dietary treatments were: 1) control, 2) control + 55 ppm of carbadox (CB), and 3) dietary acid [DA; control + 0.4% organic acid-based blend (fumaric, lactate, citric, propionic, and benzoic acids; Kemin Americas)] on d 0 to 7 followed by 0.2% inorganic acid-based blend (phosphoric, fumaric, lactic, and citric acids; Kemin Americas) on d 7 to 34. In Exp. 2, 210 pigs (average 18.3 d of age) were fed 1 of 3 dietary treatments: 1) control, 2) control + 55 ppm of CB, and 3) control + 38.6 ppm of tiamulin + 441 ppm of chlortetracycline on d 0 to 7 followed by 110 ppm of chlortetracycline on d 7 to 35 (TC) with or without dietary acidification (same as Exp. 1) in a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. For both experiments, the pigs were allotted based on genetics, sex, and initial BW [5.5 kg (Exp. 1) or 5.6 kg (Exp. 2)]. Pigs were housed at 6 or 7 (Exp. 1) and 7 (Exp. 2) pigs/pen. Treatments were fed in 3 phases: d 0 to 7, 7 to 21, and 21 to 35 (34 d, Exp. 1). Fecal grab samples were collected from 3 pigs/pen on d 6, 20, and 33 for measurement of pH and Escherichia coli. During phase 3 and overall in Exp. 1, pigs fed CB had greater (P < 0.001) ADG (overall ADG, 389 vs. 348, and 348 g/d, respectively), ADFI (P < 0.007, 608 vs. 559, and 554 g/d, respectively), and d 34 BW (P < 0.001, 18.8 vs. 17.3, and 17.3 kg, respectively) than pigs fed NC and DA. Phase 3 ADG was improved (P < 0.01) by water acidification across all diets. In Exp. 2, pigs fed CB and TC had greater ADG (P < 0.004; 315 and 303 vs. 270 g/d, respectively), ADFI (P < 0.01), and d 35 BW (P < 0.002; 16.7 and 16.2 vs. 15.1 kg, respectively) than pigs fed NC. There was a tendency (P < 0.08) for an improvement in ADG when DA was added to the NC or TC, but decreased ADG when DA was added to CB. (+info)