Women's interest in vaginal microbicides.
CONTEXT: Each year, an estimated 15 million new cases of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV, occur in the United States. Women are not only at a disadvantage because of their biological and social susceptibility, but also because of the methods that are available for prevention. METHODS: A nationally representative sample of 1,000 women aged 18-44 in the continental United States who had had sex with a man in the last 12 months were interviewed by telephone. Analyses identified levels and predictors of women's worry about STDs and interest in vaginal microbicides, as well as their preferences regarding method characteristics. Numbers of potential U.S. microbicide users were estimated. RESULTS: An estimated 21.3 million U.S. women have some potential current interest in using a microbicidal product. Depending upon product specifications and cost, as many as 6.0 million women who are worried about getting an STD would be very interested in current use of a microbicide. These women are most likely to be unmarried and not cohabiting, of low income and less education, and black or Hispanic. They also are more likely to have visited a doctor for STD symptoms or to have reduced their sexual activity because of STDs, to have a partner who had had other partners in the past year, to have no steady partner or to have ever used condoms for STD prevention. CONCLUSIONS: A significant minority of women in the United States are worried about STDs and think they would use vaginal microbicides. The development, testing and marketing of such products should be expedited. (+info)
Genetic evidence that InhA of Mycobacterium smegmatis is a target for triclosan.
Three Mycobacterium smegmatis mutants selected for resistance to triclosan each had a different mutation in InhA, an enoyl reductase involved in fatty acid synthesis. Two expressed some isoniazid resistance. A mutation originally selected on isoniazid also mediated triclosan resistance, as did the wild-type inhA gene on a multicopy plasmid. Replacement of the mutant chromosomal inhA genes with wild-type inhA eliminated resistance. These results suggest that M. smegmatis InhA, like its Escherichia coli homolog FabI, is a target for triclosan. (+info)
High cure rate of Helicobacter pylori infection using tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate, furazolidone and clarithromycin triple therapy for 1 week.
BACKGROUND: When metronidazole is used in bismuth-based or proton pump inhibitor-based triple therapy, the cure rate of Helicobacter pylori is usually high. However, metronidazole-resistant H. pylori strains, which are increasing in frequency, are a major cause of failed H. pylori eradication. AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of non-metronidazole containing bismuth-based triple therapy for H. pylori infection. METHODS: One-hundred and eighty H. pylori-positive patients with endoscopically documented peptic ulcer disease or functional dyspepsia were randomly assigned to one of three 1-week regimens containing tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate (also called colloidal bismuth subcitrate) 240 mg b.d. and two antibiotics: furazolidone 100 mg b.d. plus clarithromycin 250 mg b.d. (Group A); or clarithromycin 250 mg b.d. plus amoxycillin 1000 mg b.d. (Group B); or furazolidone 100 mg b.d. plus josamycin 1000 mg b.d. (Group C). H. pylori status was assessed by rapid urease test, histology and culture of gastric biopsy specimens taken from both the antrum and corpus, both before and at least 4 weeks after completion of therapy. RESULTS: Thirteen patients dropped out (3 in group A, 5 in group B and 5 in group C). Based on an intention-to-treat analysis, the eradication rates achieved in groups A, B and C were 88% (53/60), 58% (35/60) and 77% (46/60), respectively. These differences were significant between groups A and B (P < 0.001), as well as between groups B and C (P < 0.05). Side-effects occurred in 7 (12%) patients in group A, 3 (5%) in group B and 8 (13%) in group C, and were mild, with the exception of vomiting in one patient (group C) that resulted in withdrawal from the study. CONCLUSION: One-week triple therapy, consisting of tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate, low-dose furazolidone and low-dose clarithromycin, achieves a high cure rate of H. pylori. (+info)
Furazolidone-containing short-term triple therapies are effective in the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection.
BACKGROUND: A furazolidone-containing therapeutic regimen for Helicobacter pylori infection has attracted special interest in the face of a rising world-wide metronidazole resistant H. pylori, and the expense of currently used antimicrobial regimens. AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of furazolidone-containing regimens in eradicating H. pylori. METHODS: One-hundred and forty H. pylori positive patients with endoscopically confirmed duodenal ulcer or functional dyspepsia received one of four different regimens to eradicate H. pylori. In the first trial, the patients were randomly assigned to receive a 1-week course of furazolidone 100 mg b.d. and clarithromycin 250 mg b.d., with either tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate (TDB) 240 mg b.d. (FCB group) or lansoprazole 30 mg daily (FCL group). In the second trial, the patients were randomly assigned to receive a 1-week course of clarithromycin 250 mg b.d. and omeprazole 20 mg daily, with either furazolidone 100 mg b.d. (FCO group) or metronidazole 400 mg b.d. (MCO group). Endoscopy was repeated 4 weeks following completion of therapy with re-assessment of H. pylori status on gastric biopsies by histology and culture. RESULTS: Four patients (1 in FCB, 1 in FCO and 2 in MCO groups) dropped out because they refused a follow-up endoscopy. Eradication rates of H. pylori on an intention-to-treat basis in the FCB, FCL, FCO and MCO groups were 91% (32/35, 95% CI: 82-99%), 91% (32/35, CI: 82-99%), 86% (30/35, CI: 74-97%) and 74% (26/35, CI: 60-89%) (all P > 0.05), respectively. Mild side-effects occurred in 15% of the 140 patients. In MCO group, the eradication rate in the patients infected with metronidazole-sensitive isolates of H. pylori was 86%, but dropped to 67% in those with metronidazole-resistance strains (P = 0.198). CONCLUSION: One-week regimens containing furazolidone and clarithromycin in combination with TDB or a proton pump inhibitor fulfil the criteria for successful H. pylori therapy. (+info)
A test for 'hygienic' hand disinfection.
A standardised test procedure is described in which finger-tips are inoculated with broth cultures of organisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphyloccocus saprophyticus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa): counts are made from washings of hands after disinfection with various antiseptic-detergents, alcoholic solutions, or unmedicated soap. 70% alcohol, with or without chlorhexidine, was the most effective preparation. The two antiseptic detergents showed variable results, but against Gram-negative bacilli neither was significantly more effective than plain soap. Some tests were also made on the death rate of organisms dried on the skin without disinfection. (+info)
Cluster of postinjection abscesses related to corticosteroid injections and use of benzalkonium chloride.
Benzalkonium chloride (BC) is an unreliable disinfectant. A matched case-control study and environmental investigation were conducted to determine the cause of and risk factors for a cluster of postinjection abscesses at a private medical clinic where BC was used as a disinfectant. Twenty-eight case-patients who had an abscess at the injection site were matched with 126 control patients who had received an intramuscular injection at the clinic on the same day. Risk factors for abscess development in a multivariable logistic model were corticosteroid injection and being female. All case-patients had received a corticosteroid injection from a multidose vial. Cultures of abscesses from 20 of 23 case-patients grew Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Cultures of BC prepared at the clinic also grew P aeruginosa, suggesting that BC was the source of infection. Injection site cleaning with BC did not appear to be the route of infection since use of BC at the time of injection was not associated with abscess development. A more likely route of infection was injection of contaminated corticosteroid from multidose vials that could have been inoculated with pseudomonads via needle puncture after vial septa were wiped with contaminated BC. Benzalkonium chloride should not be used to clean injection vial septa or injection sites. (+info)
DSC and NMR spectroscopic studies of the interaction between camphorated phenol and phospholipid liposomes.
To clarify the interaction mechanism of biological activities induced by camphorated phenol (CP), the interactions between CP and phospholipid liposomes [dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) liposomes, dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) liposomes and DMPC/dilauloyl phosphatidylethanolamine (DLEA) liposomes] were studies by DSC and NMR spectroscopy. CP exhibited a larger DSC phase transition properties [shift of phase transition temperature to a lower temperature and decrease in Height/Half-Height Width (H/HHW) of DSC peak)] than phenol in the various liposome systems. It was concluded from the NMR studies that CP is highly incorporated into the DPPC bilayer, the 1H and 13C signals of phenol in a complex between phenol and camphor being markedly broadened but shielded in the presence of DPPC liposomes. It was clear that CP is incorporated as a complex into the lipid bilayers. (+info)
Treatment of toenail onychomycosis with 2% butenafine and 5% Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil in cream.
The prevalence of onychomycosis, a superficial fungal infection that destroys the entire nail unit, is rising, with no satisfactory cure. The objective of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to examine the clinical efficacy and tolerability of 2% butenafine hydrochloride and 5% Melaleuca alternifolia oil incorporated in a cream to manage toenail onychomycosis in a cohort. Sixty outpatients (39 M, 21 F) aged 18-80 years (mean 29.6) with 6-36 months duration of disease were randomized to two groups (40 and 20), active and placebo. After 16 weeks, 80% of patients using medicated cream were cured, as opposed to none in the placebo group. Four patients in the active treatment group experienced subjective mild inflammation without discontinuing treatment. During follow-up, no relapse occurred in cured patients and no improvement was seen in medication-resistant and placebo participants. (+info)