Protection by short-chain fatty acids against 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine-induced intestinal lesions in germfree mice.
In germfree mice, the administration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) protected the intestinal mucosa from damage produced by 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (Ara-C). Animals receiving SCFA and Ara-C had intestinal morphologies closer to normal than the control animals, which had severe intestinal lesions. We concluded that orally administrated SCFA reduce intestinal lesions, improving the mucosa pattern of the small intestine and colon. (+info)
Effect of 3-hydroxyphthaloyl-beta-lactoglobulin on vaginal transmission of simian immunodeficiency virus in rhesus monkeys.
Heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is the major cause of the ongoing AIDS epidemic. Application of chemical barrier methods is expected to contribute to the worldwide control of this epidemic. Bovine beta-lactoglobulin modified by 3-hydroxyphthalic anhydride (3-hydroxyphthalovyl-beta-lactoglobulin [3HP-beta-LG]) was shown to inhibit HIV-1, HIV-2, simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2, and Chlamydia trachomatis infection in vitro. Here, we show that 3HP-beta-LG not formulated into any vehicle protected three of six rhesus monkeys against vaginal infection by SIV. Incorporation of the compound into an appropriate vehicle is expected to increase the degree of protection. 3HP-beta-LG may be effective as a vaginal inhibitor of HIV-1 infection in humans. (+info)
Protective effect of cyclosporin A and FK506 from nitric oxide-dependent apoptosis in activated macrophages.
1. Activation of macrophages with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and low doses of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) induced apoptotic death through a nitric oxide-dependent pathway. 2. Treatment of cells with the immunosuppressors cyclosporin A (CsA) or FK506 inhibited the activation-dependent apoptosis. 3. These drugs decreased the up-regulation of p53 and Bax characteristic of activated macrophages. Moreover, incubation of activated macrophages with CsA and FK506 contributed to maintain higher levels of Bcl-2 than in LPS/IFN-gamma treated cells. 4. The inhibition of apoptosis exerted by CsA and FK506 in macrophages was also observed when cell death was induced by treatment with chemical nitric oxide donors. 5. Incubation of macrophages with LPS/IFN-gamma barely affected caspase-1 but promoted an important activation of caspase-3. Both CsA and FK506 inhibited pathways leading to caspase-3 activation. Moreover, the cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, a well established caspase substrate, was reduced by these immunosuppressive drugs. 6. CsA and FK506 reduced the release of cytochrome c to the cytosol and the activation of caspase-3 in cells treated with nitric oxide donors. 7. These results indicate that CsA and FK506 protect macrophages from nitric oxide-dependent apoptosis and suggest a contribution of the macrophage to innate immunity under conditions of immunosuppression of the host. (+info)
Pharmacological activities of TEI-8362, a novel inhibitor of human neutrophil elastase.
1. TEI-8362, 4-(N-(3-((3-carboxypropyl)amino)-8-methyl-1-oxo-4-azaisochromen-6- yl)carbamoyl)-4-((phenylmethoxy)carbonylamino)butanoic acid (C26H28N4O9) is a novel inhibitor of human neutrophil elastase (HNE). We evaluated its pharmacological profile in vitro and in vivo. 2. TEI-8362 demonstrated potent inhibition of HNE with a Ki value of 1.38 x 10(-9) M. Its selectivity for HNE among a variety of proteases ranged from 163 fold to 68,000 fold in favour of HNE. 3. The pulmonary haemorrhage that occurred after i.t. instillation of HNE to hamsters was inhibited by either i.t., i.v., or inhalant administration of TEI-8362. 4. Intratracheal administration of lipopolysaccharide induced pulmonary neutrophilia. Twenty-four hours after lipopolysaccharide administration, the additional treatment with formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine resulted in a specific neutrophil-dependent acute lung injury. In this model, lung injury was significantly attenuated by i.t., i.v., or inhalant administration of TEI-8362. 5. These pharmacological actions of TEI-8362 suggest that this drug has therapeutic value in the treatment of destructive lung diseases due to neutrophils. (+info)
Polaprezinc, a mucosal protective agent, in combination with lansoprazole, amoxycillin and clarithromycin increases the cure rate of Helicobacter pylori infection.
AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of polaprezinc, a mucosal protective agent, in combination with a 7-day triple therapy containing lansoprazole, amoxycillin and clarithromycin, as a treatment for Helicobacter pylori. METHODS: Sixty-six consecutive patients suffering from dyspeptic symptoms with H. pylori infection were randomly allocated to one of two regimens: one group (LAC; n = 31) received lansoprazole 30 mg b.d., amoxycillin 500 mg b.d. and clarithromycin 400 mg b.d. for 7 days. The other group (LACP; n = 35) received the LAC regimen plus polaprezinc 150 mg b.d. for 7 days. H. pylori status was evaluated by rapid urease test, histology and culture at entry and 4 weeks after treatment. RESULTS: Five patients did not complete the treatment: no follow-up endoscopy was performed on two patients in the LAC group; one patient in the LAC group and two in the LACP group had their treatment stopped due to severe diarrhoea. By per protocol analysis, H. pylori eradication was achieved in 24 of the 28 evaluable patients (86%; 95% CI: 72-100%) after LAC therapy, and in 33 of the 33 evaluable patients (100%) after LACP therapy (P < 0.05). On intention-to-treat analysis, the rates of eradication were 24 of 31 patients (77%; 95% CI: 62-93%) in the LAC group, and 33 of 35 patients (94%; 95% CI: 86-100%) in the LACP group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: A 7-day triple therapy with lansoprazole, amoxycillin and clarithromycin is effective in H. pylori eradication, but this regimen is significantly improved by the addition of polaprezinc. (+info)
Effect of vitamin E in gastric mucosal injury induced by ischaemia-reperfusion in nitric oxide-depleted rats.
BACKGROUND: Neutrophil infiltration and lipid peroxide accumulation are involved in reperfusion-induced gastric mucosal injury in nitric oxide-depleted rats. AIM: To assess the effect of vitamin E on this injury. METHODS: After ischaemia-reperfusion, the total area of erosions, lipid peroxide contents in gastric mucosa, and gastric neutrophil accumulation were compared between nitric oxide-depleted rats with deficient, normal, and increased vitamin E intake over 8 weeks. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and tissue-associated myeloperoxidase activity were measured in gastric mucosa as indices of lipid peroxidation and neutrophil infiltration. RESULTS: The total area of erosions was significantly increased in the vitamin E-deficient group compared with the sufficient-intake and vitamin-supplemented groups. Both thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and myeloperoxidase activity also were significantly increased in the vitamin E-deficient group compared with others. The total area of erosions closely paralleled the increases in both thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and myeloperoxidase activity. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that the inhibition of lipid peroxidation and interference with neutrophil infiltration by vitamin E may be responsible for its cytoprotective effect in ischaemia-reperfusion. (+info)
Double-blind randomized study on the myeloprotective effect of melatonin in combination with carboplatin and etoposide in advanced lung cancer.
A significant myeloprotective effect of melatonin in mice treated with etoposide, cyclophosphamide or carboplatin has been reported. The present study was designed to evaluate if the same effect could be observed in patients receiving chemotherapy. Twenty previously untreated patients with inoperable lung cancer received two cycles of carboplatin (given at area under the curve 5 by the Calvert formula) on day 1 and etoposide (150 mg m(-2) i.v.) on days 1-3 every 4 weeks. Melatonin 40 mg or placebo (double-blind) was given orally in the evening for 21 consecutive days, starting 2 days before chemotherapy. Patients were randomized to receive melatonin either with the first or the second cycle. Complete blood cell count with differential was done three times per week for 3 weeks. The median age of the cohort was 60 years (range 42-69), 16 patients had non-small cell and four patients small-cell lung cancer, 12 stage III and eight stage IV disease. In a multivariate analysis including age, sex, diagnosis, stage, performance status, doses of carboplatin and etoposide, and concomitant treatment with melatonin or placebo, the haematological parameters--depth and duration of toxicity for haemoglobin, platelets and neutrophils (ANC)--were not significantly different between cycles with/without melatonin. The mean ANC nadir and the mean number of days with ANC < 0.5 x 10(9) l(-1) were 0.5 x 10(9) l(-1) and 2.5 days, respectively, with/without melatonin. We concluded that, in patients with lung cancer, melatonin given orally at a dose of 40 mg per day for 21 days in the evening, does not protect against the myelotoxic effect of carboplatin and etoposide. (+info)
The phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase pathway is a dominant growth factor-activated cell survival pathway in LNCaP human prostate carcinoma cells.
Intracellular signaling pathways that mediate survival of prostate carcinoma (PCa) cells are poorly understood. We examined the potential role of the phosphatidylinositol 3' kinase (PI3K) pathway as a mediator of cell survival in LNCaP human PCa cells, which express a variety of properties characteristic of human prostate cancer. LNCaP cell cultures rapidly became apoptotic when treated with the specific PI3K inhibitors, wortmannin and LY294002. In contrast, apoptosis was not induced when the cells were treated with: (a) rapamycin, an inhibitor of the ribosomal S6 kinase pp70S6K, which acts downstream of PI3K; (b) PD98059, a specific inhibitor of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase (Erk/MAPK) kinase (MEK); or (c) the antiandrogen, Casodex; or when the cells were cultured under androgen-depleted conditions. Apoptosis induced by PI3K inhibition was attenuated by: (a) dihydrotestosterone; or (b) the ErbB1 activating ligands [epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor alpha, or heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor]. In response to ErbB1 activation by ligand, the p85 regulatory subunit of PI3K associated specifically with ErbB3 but not detectably with ErbB1. The anti-apoptotic effect of ErbB1 activation was significantly reduced when cells were treated simultaneously with wortmannin and PD98059. These data indicate that survival signals can be evoked in LNCaP cells by several distinct pathways and can be triggered by nuclear and cell-surface receptors. Constitutive signaling through the PI3K pathway is required to prevent cell death in LNCaP, whereas activation of the Erk/MAPK and androgen response pathways is not obligatory for cell survival. These results also show that survival signals, as distinguished from mitogenic signals, can be evoked in PCa cells by ErbB1 ligands known to be synthesized within the human prostate. (+info)