Comparative cytotoxicity of ionic and non-ionic radiocontrast agents on MDCK cell monolayers in vitro.
BACKGROUND: Intravascular radiocontrast agents may cause acute renal failure, particularly in patients with pre-existing renal insufficiency. Direct cytotoxic effects of radiocontrast agents on renal tubular cells may contribute to the pathogenesis of radiocontrast-induced nephropathy. METHODS: We analysed the cytotoxicity of the ionic radiocontrast agents diatrizoate (monomeric) and ioxaglate (dimeric), as well as of the non-ionic radiocontrast agents iohexol (monomeric) and iodixanol (dimeric) on the renal epithelial Madin Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cell line grown on permeable supports. The toxicity assays assessed cell viability, transmonolayer resistance and inulin permeability between the apical and basal cell culture compartment. In addition, the distribution of the tight-junction-associated membrane proteins ZO-1 and occludin was analysed using immunofluorescence microscopy. RESULTS: In all assays the high osmolal ionic compound diatrizoate had significant cytotoxic effects that included the partial redistribution of the tight-junction-associated membrane proteins into a cytoplasmic compartment. To a lesser extent this redistribution also occurred with the dimeric ionic compound ioxaglate, but not with the non-ionic radiocontrast agents. With regards to cell viability, transmonolayer resistance and inulin permeability the radiocontrast agents with reduced osmolality were significantly less toxic than diatrizoate, independent of their ionic strength. CONCLUSIONS: Physicochemical factors contribute to the cytotoxicity of radiocontrast agents in vitro. The redistribution of tight-junction-associated membrane proteins by the ionic radiocontrast agents corresponds with the loss of the barrier function of the epithelial cell monolayer, which is a major pathophysiological mechanism in acute renal failure. The radiocontrast agents with reduced osmolality are less cytotoxic than diatrizoate, independent of their ionicity. Hyperosmolality appears to be a more important determinant of the cytotoxicity of diatrizoate than ionic strength. (+info)
Responses of plant vascular systems to auxin transport inhibition.
To assess the role of auxin flows in plant vascular patterning, the development of vascular systems under conditions of inhibited auxin transport was analyzed. In Arabidopsis, nearly identical responses evoked by three auxin transport inhibitor substances revealed an enormous plasticity of the vascular pattern and suggest an involvement of auxin flows in determining the sites of vascular differentiation and in promoting vascular tissue continuity. Organs formed under conditions of reduced auxin transport contained increased numbers of vascular strands and cells within those strands were improperly aligned. In leaves, vascular tissues became progressively confined towards the leaf margin as the concentration of auxin transport inhibitor was increased, suggesting that the leaf vascular system depends on inductive signals from the margin of the leaf. Staged application of auxin transport inhibitor demonstrated that primary, secondary and tertiary veins became unresponsive to further modulations of auxin transport at successive stages of early leaf development. Correlation of these stages to anatomical features in early leaf primordia indicated that the pattern of primary and secondary strands becomes fixed at the onset of lamina expansion. Similar alterations in the leaf vascular responses of alyssum, snapdragon and tobacco plants suggest common functions of auxin flows in vascular patterning in dicots, while two types of vascular pattern alterations in Arabidopsis auxin transport mutants suggest that at least two distinct primary defects can result in impaired auxin flow. We discuss these observations with regard to the relative contributions of auxin transport, auxin sensitivity and the cellular organisation of the developing organ on the vascular pattern. (+info)
Recombinant adeno-associated virus purification using novel methods improves infectious titer and yield.
Conventional methods for rAAV purification that are based on cesium chloride ultracentrifugation have often produced vector preparations of variable quality and resulted in significant loss of particle infectivity. We report here several novel purification strategies that involve the use of non-ionic iodixanol gradients followed by ion exchange or heparin affinity chromatography by either conventional or HPLC columns. These methods result in more than 50% recovery of rAAV from a crude lysate and routinely produce vector that is more than 99% pure. More importantly, the new purification procedures consistently produce rAAV stocks with particle-to-infectivity ratios of less than 100, which is significantly better than conventional methods. The new protocol increases the overall yield of infectious rAAV by at least 10-fold and allows for the complete purification of rAAV in 1 working day. Several of these methods should also be useful for large-scale production. (+info)
Biotransformation of nonionic X-Ray contrast agents In vivo and In vitro.
Liposomes loaded with the nonionic iodinated contrast agent iodixanol were injected i.v. into monkeys, rats, and dogs, and liver samples were analyzed by HPLC and mass spectrometry. Two metabolites (M1 and M2), with UV spectra identical to those of the iodixanol isomers (exo and endo) and with a mass increase of 162 compared with iodixanol, were detected. Incubations of iodixanol-liposomes or iodixanol in rat liver homogenates resulted in large amounts of iodixanol metabolites, whereas no metabolites were formed in other organ or tissue homogenates. Four groups of unidentified HPLC peaks were detected: M1 and M2 with a relative retention similar to the metabolite peaks of the in vivo samples, and in addition the minor M3 and M4. UV spectrum analysis indicated that M1 and M3 were structurally related to the iodixanol exo-isomer, whereas M2 and M4 were related to the endo-isomer. Mass spectrometry techniques indicated that the metabolites were conjugates containing one or two hexose residues, which by carbohydrate analysis and experiments with concanavalin A-Sepharose and alpha- and beta-glucosidase were shown to be glucose residues bound to iodixanol through O-alpha1-glycoside-like linkages. Metabolites with similar mass increments also were detected for several other nonionic contrast agents after in vitro incubations in liver homogenates. In conclusion, M1 and M3 are conjugates of the iodixanol exo-isomer with one and two glucose adducts, respectively. M2 and M4 are similar conjugates of the iodixanol endo-isomer. This is the first report on hepatic biotransformation of this class of X-ray contrast agents. (+info)
Purification and protein composition of PM2, the first lipid-containing bacterial virus to be isolated.
The marine, icosahedral bacteriophage PM2 was isolated in the late 1960s. It was the first phage for which lipids were firmly demonstrated to be part of the virion structure and it has been classified as the type organism of the Corticoviridae family. The host, Pseudoalteromonas espejiana BAL-31, belongs to a common group of marine bacteria. We developed a purification method producing virions with specific infectivity approximately as high as that of the lipid-containing phages PRD1 and φ6. The sensitivity of the virus to normally used purification media such as those containing sucrose is demonstrated. We also present an alternative host, a pseudoalteromonad, that allows enhanced purification of the virus under reduced salt conditions. We show, using N-terminal amino acid sequencing and comparison with the genomic sequence, that there are at least eight structural proteins in the infectious virus. (+info)
Iodinated radiographic contrast media inhibit shear stress- and agonist-evoked release of NO by the endothelium.
1 We have used isolated arterial preparations from the rabbit and dog to investigate whether non-ionic iodinated radiographic contrast media (IRCM) modulate nitric oxide (NO) release. The tri-iodinated monomers iopromide and iohexol were compared with the hexa-iodinated dimer iodixanol. 2 The vasodilator effects of iohexol (300 mg ml-1) and iodixanol (320 mg ml-1) were assessed in cascade bioassay. Increasing concentrations of iohexol or iodixanol caused concentration-dependent relaxations of the detector tissue which were insensitive to 100 microM NG-nitro L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and 10 microM indomethacin, whereas viscosity-associated relaxations induced by the 'inert' agent dextran (MW 80,000; 1-4%) were attenuated by inhibition of NO synthesis. 3 Relaxations of endothelium-intact rings to acetylcholine (ACh) were attenuated by preincubation with iohexol or iodixanol, whereas relaxations to sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in endothelium-denuded rings were unaffected. Inhibitory activity did not correlate with either molarity or iodine concentration. Mannitol caused inhibition of both ACh- and SNP-induced responses. 4 In isolated perfused arteries the depressor responses to iodixanol (320 mg ml-1) and iopromide (300 mg ml-1) administered as close arterial bolus attained a plateau with maximal dilatations of approximately 25% and approximately 60%, respectively. Addition of 100 microM NG-nitro L-arginine (L-NOARG) and/or 10 microM indomethacin to the perfusate had no effect on the responses to either agent. 5 We conclude that IRCM exert direct effects on the endothelium that inhibit NO production rather than its action on vascular smooth muscle. Shear stress-induced stimulation of NO production by IRCM is unlikely to contribute to their vasodilator activity in vivo when administered during angiography despite high intrinsic viscosity. (+info)
Repeated measurement of intestinal permeability as an assessment of colitis severity in HLA-B27 transgenic rats.
We report on the development of a method for repeated monitoring of mucosal permeability that allows assessment of the severity of colitis and evaluation of treatment efficacy in HLA-B27 transgenic rats. We determined the extent to which intestinal permeability related to stool condition, colon weight, and histological pathology in precolitic and diseased rats up to 29 weeks old. Intestinal permeability was measured by the urinary excretion of iodixanol at 24 h after oral administration. Mean permeability values increased significantly with age in HLA-B27 rats but remained decreased in the background strain Fischer-344 (F-344) control animals. Macroscopic evaluation of HLA-B27 rat colons between 20 and 24 weeks old showed colonic thickening with colonic wet weights increased from 3.4+/-0.13 mg/kg b.wt. in F-344 rats to 6.79+/-0.73 mg/kg b.wt. (p<.05) in HLA-B27 rats. Histological examination of HLA-B27 rat colons confirmed the colonic inflammation as a chronic active mononuclear cell infiltrate. The increase in colon weight was associated with an increase in permeability: 1.16+/-0.17 mg iodixanol versus 5.37+/-1.3 mg of iodixanol in F-344 and HLA-B27 rats, respectively. Three weeks treatment of HLA-B27 rats with cyclosporin A, but not sulfasalazine, showed a dose-dependent decrease in mucosal permeability and colon weight. Neither treatment improved stool condition. We conclude that the measurement of intestinal permeability by iodixanol excretion is a useful biochemical marker that is associated with increases in colonic weight and histological evaluation of inflammation. These data indicate that this technique may be valuable for diagnostic and evaluation purposes in preclinical models of inflammatory bowel disease. (+info)
Auxin is required for leaf vein pattern in Arabidopsis.
To investigate possible roles of polar auxin transport in vein patterning, cotyledon and leaf vein patterns were compared for plants grown in medium containing polar auxin transport inhibitors (N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid, 9-hydroxyfluorene-9-carboxylic acid, and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid) and in medium containing a less well-characterized inhibitor of auxin-mediated processes, 2-(p-chlorophynoxy)-2-methylpropionic acid. Cotyledon vein pattern was not affected by any inhibitor treatments, although vein morphology was altered. In contrast, leaf vein pattern was affected by inhibitor treatments. Growth in polar auxin transport inhibitors resulted in leaves that lacked vascular continuity through the petiole and had broad, loosely organized midveins, an increased number of secondary veins, and a dense band of misshapen tracheary elements adjacent to the leaf margin. Analysis of leaf vein pattern developmental time courses suggested that the primary vein did not develop in polar auxin transport inhibitor-grown plants, and that the broad midvein observed in these seedlings resulted from the coalescence of proximal regions of secondary veins. Possible models for leaf vein patterning that could account for these observations are discussed. (+info)