Aldosterone and renin in essential hypertension.
A review of some recent laboratory findings indicates definite disturbances in aldosterone metabolism and regulation in patients with mild essential hypertension: (a) a significant mean increase in plasma aldosterone concentration in patients with mild and stable essential hypertension, in contrast to the absence of any difference in patients with labile borderline essential hypertension when in a normotensive phase, compared with control subjects; and (b) a significant mean decrease in metabolic clearance rate of aldosterone, associated with a 12% decrease in hepatic blood flow and an increased binding of aldosterone to a transcortin-like plasma globulin. The secretion rate of 18-hydroxy-11-deoxycorticosterone is above the upper range of normal in 60% of patients with mild, uncomplicated essential hypertension. The incidence of low-renin hypertension, when age and race are taken into account, is much lower than previously assumed. Unless measurements are repeated over a long period, one or two low values of plasma renin cannot be considered a permanent marker indicating a special category of patients with essential hypertension. Tonin, a new enzyme discovered by Boucher, which forms angiotensin II directly from a plasma protein, from the tetradecapeptide substrate and from angiotensin I, is present in most tissues, but in highest concentration in the submaxillary gland. This enzyme is under the control of beta-adrenergic receptors. (+info)
Preclinical Cushing's syndrome due to ACTH-independent bilateral macronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia with excessive secretion of 18-hydroxydeoxycorticosterone and corticosterone.
A 64-year-old woman developed hypertension and hypokalemia, due to ACTH-independent bilateral macronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia (AIMAH) with excessive secretion of 18-hydroxydeoxycorticosterone and corticosterone. Plasma cortisol did not show a diurnal rhythm, and was not suppressed by dexamethasone (8 mg). Plasma cortisol responded to ACTH and was increased by hypoglycemia without modifying ACTH levels. Radiological studies demonstrated that adrenal glands were enlarged with macronodules. Although the patient exhibited a low plasma renin activity and aldosterone levels, hypokalemia and hypertension were observed. Hormonal findings would support the hypothesis that the tumor of AIMAH originated from cells of the upper zona fasciculata. (+info)
Effect of uni-adrenalectomy on blood pressure in a patient with excessive adrenal 18-hydroxy-11-deoxycorticosterone production bilaterally.
A 46-year-old woman was presented with mineralocorticoid excess syndrome and a large mass originating from the right adrenal gland. Clinical examination before right adrenalectomy revealed elevated serum concentrations of 18-hydroxy-11-deoxycorticosterone (18-OH-DOC) both systemically and in the adrenal veins bilaterally. Histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses of the surgical specimen demonstrated adrenal hyperplasia of outer fasciculata cells, and the presence of cystic mass. The adrenalectomy ameliorated her blood pressure (BP) from 156/96 mmHg to 148/87 mmHg with a concomitant increase of serum potassium concentration from 3.1 mEq/l to 3.5 mEq/l. These results suggest that uni-adrenalectomy is, at least in part, effective in ameliorating not only BP but also potassium concentration in a patient of adrenal hyperplasia with excessive bilateral 18-OH-DOC production. (+info)
Effect of aminoglutethimide on blood pressure and steroid secretion in patients with low renin essential hypertension.
An inhibitor of adrenal steroid biosynthesis, aminoglutethimide, was administered to seven patients with low renin essential hypertension, and the antihypertensive action of the drug was compared with its effects on adrenal steroid production. In all patients aldosterone concentrations in plasma and urine were within normal limits before the study. Mean arterial pressure was reduced from a pretreatment value of 117+/-2 (mean+/-SE) mm Hg to 108+/-3 mm Hg after 4 days of aminoglutethimide therapy and further to 99+/-3 mm Hg when drug administration was stopped (usually 21 days). Body weight was also reduced from 81.6+/-7.2 kg in the control period to 80.6+/-7.0 kg after 4 days of drug treatment and to 80.1+/-6.7 kg at the termination of therapy. Plasma renin activity was not significantly increased after 4 days of treatment but had risen to the normal range by the termination of aminoglutethimide therapy. Mean plasma concentrations of deoxycorticosterone and cortisol were unchanged during aminoglutethimide treatment whereas those of 18-hydroxydeoxycorticosterone, progesterone, 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, and 11-deoxycortisol were increased as compared to pretreatment values. In contrast, aminoglutethimide treatment reduced mean plasma aldosterone concentrations to about 30% of control values. Excretion rates of 16beta-hydroxydehydroepiandrosterone, 16-oxo-androstenediol, 17-hydroxycorticosteroids and 17-ketosteroids, and the secretion rate of 16beta-hydroxydehydroepiandrosterone were not significantly altered by aminoglutethimide treatment whereas the excretion rate of aldosterone was reduced from 3.62+/-0.5 (mean+/-SE) in the control period to 0.9+/-0.2 mug/24 h after 4 days and to 1.1+/-0.3 mug/24 h at the termination of aminoglutethimide treatment. The gradual lowering of blood pressure and body weight during aminoglutethimide therapy is consistent with the view that the antihypertensive effect of the drug is mediated through a reduction in the patients' extracellular fluid volume, probably secondary to the persistent decrease in aldosterone production. The observation that chronic administration of aminoglutethimide lowered blood pressure in these patients and elevated their plasma renin activity to the normal range without decreasing production of the adrenal steroids, deoxycorticosterone, 18-hydroxydeoxycorticosterone, and 16beta-hydroxydehydroepiandrosterone, makes it unlikely that these steroids are responsible either for the decreased renin or the elevated blood pressure in patients with low renin essential hypertension. (+info)
The regulation of plasma 18-hydroxy 11-deoxycorticosterone in man.
18-hydroxy 11-deoxycorticosterone (18-OH DOC), a weak mineralocorticoid, was estimated by a radioimmunoassay procedure after purification in 49 patients with hypertension and 38 normal control subjects. The sensitivity of the method was 2-4 pg; there was no detectable blank, and the precision was 9-10%. In normal subjects the absolute plasma levels were similar to those of aldosterone. ACTH administration produced a 23-fold increase, and sodium restriction resulted in a 4-fold increase (5.4+/-0.7-20.5+/-3.0 ng/dl). On the other hand, the plasma levels of 18-OH DOC declined by nearly 50% with upright posture or angiotensin II infusion. During both of these procedures, plasma aldosterone levels significantly increased. Patients with normal and low renin hypertension had similar changes in plasma 18-OH DOC levels with sodium restriction. However, the mean high sodium level in the normal renin essential hypertension group (11.6+/-1.6 ng/dl) was significantly greater (P is less than 0.001) than in the control group (5.4+/-0.7 ng/dl). In addition, at least 22% and perhaps as high as 37% of the hypertensive subjects had levels greater than the upper limits of normal on a high sodium intake. Differences between the groups were less impressive in the sodium-restricted studies. There were no significant differences in age, duration of hypertension, sodium balance, serum sodium, potassium, or blood urea nitrogen in those patients who had elevated levels of plasma 18-OH DOC. Patients with primary aldosteronism had levels within the normal range on both dietary intake. However, in contrast to the other groups there were no significant changes in the plasma levels with sodium restriction. Thus, a significant number of patients with essential hypertension presumably have an alteration in 18-OH DOC secretion. (+info)
Plasma levels of 18-hydroxy-11-deoxycorticosterone in essential hypertension.
In order to investigate the role of 18-hydroxy-11-deoxycorticosterone (18-OH-DOC) in essential hypertension (EH), the responses of plasma 17-OH-DOC to 7 stimulation tests (furosemide test, adrenal suppression test, angiotensin II infusion test, adrenal stimulation test, metopirone test, saline infusion test and potassium chloride infusion test) and the circadian rhythm were investigated in 18 patients with essential hypertension (low renin group: 8, and normal renin group: 10). From the present study, it micht be thought that plasma 18-OH-DOC does not play an important role in the suppression of PRA in patients with low PRA. (+info)
Trend analysis of serum progesterone, deoxycorticosterone, deoxycorticosterone sulfate, cortisol, corticosterone, 18-hydroxydeoxycorticosterone and estradiol in early neonates.
To elucidate the origin and regulatory mechanism of deoxycorticosterone (DOC) and deoxycorticosterone sulfate during fetal life, the levels of serum DOC, DOC sulfate, progesterone, cortisol, corticosterone and 18-hydroxydeoxycorticosterone (18OH-DOC) were determined in the fraction separated on high performance liquid chromatogram (HPLC) by radioimmunoassay (RIA) using the serum from normal newborn. Elimination curves both of serum DOC and DOC sulfate showed two phases: rapidly decreasing and slowly decreasing ones. Both serum DOC and DOC sulfate correlated with progesterone (r = 0.340, p less than 0.01; r = 0.737, p less than 0.01, respectively). They also correlated with cortisol (DOC, r = 0.467, p less than 0.01; DOC sulfate, r = 0.549, p less than 0.01, respectively). Serum DOC reached normal adult levels by 16 hrs after birth. However serum DOC sulfate concentration was maintained high throughout the entire early neonatal period. On the contrary, the changes in serum cortisol, corticosterone and 18OH-DOC showed a peak surge in the initial phase after delivery. Both serum corticosterone and 18OH-DOC correlated with cortisol (r = 0.518, p less than 0.01; r = 0.410, p less than 0.01, respectively). These findings suggest that, in the fetus, serum DOC and DOC sulfate are mainly produced at extraadrenal sites isolated from normal mineralocorticoids synthesis and after birth they begin to be formed at adrenal glands. (+info)
Suppression of adrenal renin in Dahl salt-sensitive rats.
We previously showed that adrenal renin is highest in the rat zona glomerulosa (ZG) and that low sodium or high potassium and nephrectomy increase adrenal ZG renin and aldosterone. Dahl salt-sensitive rats (S) have been shown to have lower plasma renin activity and plasma aldosterone and higher plasma 18-hydroxy-11-deoxycorticosterone than Dahl salt-resistant rats (R). In this study we assess the possible role of adrenal ZG renin in the suppression of aldosterone in S rats. Adrenal ZG renin was significantly decreased in S as compared with R rats even at 6 weeks of age, when both S and R rats are still normotensive (S = 7.2 +/- 0.2, R = 18.0 +/- 1.6 ng angiotensin I/mg protein/hr). Adrenal ZG aldosterone was also significantly lower in S than in R rats (S = 21.1 +/- 4.3, R = 39.5 +/- 3.6 ng/mg protein). Furthermore, the rise in adrenal ZG renin and aldosterone after nephrectomy in S rats was significantly less than that in R rats. To determine if the suppressed adrenal ZG renin of S rats is due to volume expansion, we studied the effect of a sodium-deficient diet on adrenal ZG renin in S and R rats. After 2 weeks of a sodium-deficient diet S rats had significantly lower basal adrenal ZG renin than did R rats (S = 7.6 +/- 0.4, R = 21.7 +/- 1.9 ng angiotensin I/mg protein/hr) and a marked blunting of the adrenal ZG renin response to nephrectomy (S = 13.6 +/- 1.1, DR = 167 +/- 16.1 ng angiotensin I/mg protein/hr).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) (+info)