Interactions between electronic article surveillance systems and implantable cardioverter-defibrillators.
BACKGROUND: In patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs). inappropriate shocks have been reported with exposure to electronic article surveillance systems. The risk to patients with ICDs of walking through or lingering near surveillance systems requires further investigation. METHODS AND RESULTS: We evaluated the response in ICD function in 170 subjects during a 10- to 15-second midgate walk-through of and during extreme (2 minutes within 6 in of the gate) exposure to 3 common article surveillance systems. Complete testing was done in 169 subjects. During a 10- to 15-second (very slow) walk-through of the 3 surveillance systems, no interactions were observed that would negatively affect ICD function. During extreme exposure (169 subjects) and during extreme exposure and pacing via the ICD (126 subjects), interactions between the ICD and the article surveillance systems were observed in 19 subjects. In 7 subjects, this interaction was clinically relevant and would have likely (3 subjects) and possibly (4 subjects) resulted in ICD shocks. In 12 subjects, the interaction was minor. CONCLUSIONS: It is safe for a patient with an ICD to walk through electronic article surveillance systems. Lingering in a surveillance system may result in an inappropriate ICD shock. (+info)
Treatment of covert food stealing in an individual with Prader-Willi syndrome.
Covert food stealing is common among individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome. We found that verbal reprimands, delivered contingent upon eating prohibited foods, were sufficient to decrease the food stealing of a girl with Prader-Willi syndrome. Warning stimuli were then used to help her discriminate between permitted and prohibited foods during sessions in which food stealing was not directly observed. This procedure resulted in decreases in food stealing from containers labeled with the warning stimuli. (+info)
Mercury contamination incident.
BACKGROUND: The aim of this paper is to describe an incident where elemental mercury led to widespread contamination and the exposure of 225 individuals and confirmed toxicity in 19 individuals. The paper describes the incident and difficulties found in trying to assess the risk to individuals and to identify and decontaminate the residences involved. METHODS: All individuals exposed to elemental mercury in the incident were followed up for 15 months. RESULTS: Thirty-seven individuals were found to be 'at risk' and 13 were symptomatic of mercury poisoning. Five patients required chelation therapy. The incident was closed when the risk of poisoning and re-exposure was minimized. CONCLUSION: Incident management depends on early effective communication and collaboration between all agencies involved. (+info)
The relation between community bans of self-service tobacco displays and store environment and between tobacco accessibility and merchant incentives.
OBJECTIVES: These studies investigated (1) the effect of community bans of self-service tobacco displays on store environment and (2) the effect of consumer tobacco accessibility on merchants. METHODS: We counted cigarette displays (self-service, clerk-assisted, clear acrylic case) in 586 California stores. Merchant interviews (N = 198) identified consumer tobacco accessibility, tobacco company incentives, and shoplifting. RESULTS: Stores in communities with self-service tobacco display bans had fewer self-service displays and more acrylic displays but an equal total number of displays. The merchants who limited consumer tobacco accessibility received fewer incentives and reported lower shoplifting losses. In contrast, consumer access to tobacco was unrelated to the amount of monetary incentives. CONCLUSIONS: Community bans decreased self-service tobacco displays; however, exposure to tobacco advertising in acrylic displays remained high. Reducing consumer tobacco accessibility may reduce shoplifting. (+info)
Television viewing and aggressive behavior during adolescence and adulthood.
Television viewing and aggressive behavior were assessed over a 17-year interval in a community sample of 707 individuals. There was a significant association between the amount of time spent watching television during adolescence and early adulthood and the likelihood of subsequent aggressive acts against others. This association remained significant after previous aggressive behavior, childhood neglect, family income, neighborhood violence, parental education, and psychiatric disorders were controlled statistically. (+info)
Perceptions of Canadian dental faculty and students about appropriate penalties for academic dishonesty.
The purpose of this investigation was to a) compare the opinions of Canadian faculty and students as regards to what they felt was an appropriate penalty for particular academic offenses and b) to analyze the results and create a jurisprudence grid to serve as a guideline for appropriate disciplinary action. Two hundred questionnaires were distributed to the ten dental colleges in Canada. Each college was asked to have ten faculty and ten students complete the survey. A response rate of 100 percent was achieved for students and 92 percent for faculty. The questionnaire required respondents to select what they felt were appropriate penalties for a list of fifteen academic offenses and to render judgment on three specific cases. Statistical analysis of survey responses led to the following conclusions: 1) students gave equal or more lenient penalties than faculty for the same offense; 2) extenuating circumstances introduced via case presentations altered penalty choice only slightly; and 3) offenses could be grouped to correspond with appropriate penalties, thereby establishing a jurisprudence grid that may serve as a guideline for adjudication committees. (+info)
Program evaluation research: an experimental cost-effectiveness analysis of an armed robbery intervention program.
An armed robbery alarm system was implemented in 48 different stores in two separate geographical areas for 6 months and 12 months, respectively. The alarms were placed in the two separate areas at different times and all alarms were eventually removed. Thus, multiple baseline and reversal strategies were used to evaluate program impact. A device planted in a cash drawer was triggered whenever "bait" money was removed from the drawer sending an alarm signal directly to police cars and headquarters. On-scene apprehensions of armed robbers within target stores were greatly increased even though the armed robbery systems did not deter robbery incidents nor influence the court disposition of the cases. There was also no crime deterrence, crime displacement, or increased apprehensions in either the immediate neighborhoods of target stores or on a city-wide basis. The cost effectiveness of the program was calculated to be poor even though the program is being maintained because of the absence of an alternative robbery apprehension technology. (+info)
Espionage scandal leads science news.
Two Japanese molecular biologists are charged with espionage in a case that could strain scientific relations between the U.S. and Japan, report both Nature and Science in their top stories this week. (+info)