Glucose intolerance by race and ethnicity in the U.S. Virgin Islands.
This study describes the prevalence on glucose intolerance by race and ethnicity in the United States Virgin Islands. A population-based sample of 1026 individuals 20 years of age or older was recruited on the island of St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, where 80% of the population classify their race as African American and 20% indicate their ethnicity as Hispanic. American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria was used to classify glucose tolerance for the entire sample. Persons 40 years of age or older (405) were also administered a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test. Among the major race/ethnic groups, the prevalence of diabetes in patients 20 years of age or older (age-adjusted to the 1995 world population) was 14.1% for non-Hispanic blacks (n = 712), 12.1% for Hispanic blacks (n = 145), 13.5% for Hispanic whites (n = 70) and 1.2% for non-Hispanic whites (n = 37). In each group, the prevalence of diabetes increased with age and appeared higher for men. Among individuals 40 years of age or older a slightly higher prevalence of newly diagnosed diabetes was found when using World Health Organization (WHO) criteria compared to ADA criteria (WHO 10.3%, ADA 7.7% for black non-Hispanic persons and WHO 10.4%, ADA 6.0% for all other groups combined). The prevalence of diabetes for African Americans residing in the U.S. Virgin Islands is similar to rates for the African-American population on the United States mainland and is double that of estimates for blacks on neighboring islands. (+info)
Swim speed and movement patterns of gravid leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) at St Croix, US Virgin Islands.
Swim speed, dive behavior and movements were recorded for seven female leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea Vandelli 1761) during a single internesting interval near St Croix in the US Virgin Islands. Modal speeds ranged from 0.56 to 0.84 m s(-1), maximum speed range 1.9-2.8 m s(-1). Turtles swam continuously throughout the day and night. There were two swim-speed patterns; the most common was slightly U-shaped, with high speeds at the initiation and conclusion of the dive, and the less common was continuous high-speed swimming. The U-shaped speed patterns were coincident with vertical diving by the turtles, while the second pattern occurred most frequently during the daytime, with the turtle swimming within 2 m of the surface. This latter swim behavior appeared to be designed to maximize efficiency for long-distance travel. The hypothesis that leatherbacks rest or bask at midday during their internesting interval is refuted by this study. (+info)
Effect of supplemental nutrition around lambing on hair sheep ewes and lambs during the dry and wet seasons in the U.S. Virgin Islands.
Pregnant St. Croix White and Barbados Blackbelly hair sheep ewes were used to evaluate the effect of supplemental nutrition around the time of lambing on ewe and lamb performance during the dry and wet seasons on St. Croix. Beginning 14 d before expected day of lambing (d 0) and for 21 d postpartum, one group of ewes was fed a pelleted supplement in addition to grazing guinea grass pasture (FEED). Other ewes in the flock grazed pasture only (CONTROL). This study was conducted during the dry season (June through September; FEED n = 14 and CONTROL n = 15) and during the wet season the next year (October through January; FEED n = 11 and CONTROL n = 12). The 24-h milk production of each ewe was measured on d 7, 21, 35, 49, and 63. Ewes were exposed to sterile rams equipped with marking harnesses to detect estrus during the postpartum period. The FEED ewes lost less weight postpartum during both seasons (P < 0.0001) and had higher milk production (P < 0.009) than CONTROL ewes during the dry season. During the dry season, the time to the first postpartum estrus did not differ (P > 0.10) between FEED and CONTROL ewes (46.9 +/- 2.7 vs 52.9 +/- 2.6 d, respectively). During the wet season, the time to first postpartum estrus was less (P < 0.07) in FEED than in CONTROL ewes (33.0 +/- 3.1 vs 41.1 +/- 2.9 d, respectively). The FEED ewes had higher lamb birth weight (P < 0.04) and weaning weight (P < 0.05) than CONTROL ewes (3.2 +/- 0.1 and 12.2 +/- 0.5 vs 2.9 +/- 0.1 and 10.9 +/- 0.5 kg, respectively) during the dry season. In the wet season, lamb birth weight and weaning weight were similar (P > 0.10) between FEED and CONTROL (3.2 +/- 0.1 and 15.5 +/- 0.7 vs 3.1 +/- 0.1 and 15.3 +/- 0.6 kg, respectively). Lambs born during the wet season had higher (P < 0.0001) ADG than lambs born during the dry season (194.4 +/- 5.9 vs 127.7 +/- 4.7 g/d, respectively). Strategic nutritional supplementation of hair sheep ewes may provide a method for increasing the weight of lambs produced during the dry season in the tropics, but it does not seem to be beneficial during the wet season. (+info)
Prevalence of diabetes--U.S. Virgin Islands, 1999-2001.
The U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) comprises four islands (St. Croix, St. John, St. Thomas, and Water Island) (2000 population: 108,612) located 70 miles east of Puerto Rico. The median age of persons residing in USVI is 33.4 years (range: 0-110 years), and 87% are aged <60 years; the majority of the residents are either black (76.2%) or Hispanic (14.0%). In 1997, diabetes was the fifth leading cause of death in USVI. Historically, the prevalence of diabetes has been lower among blacks in USVI than among blacks in the 50 states. To characterize the prevalence of diabetes in USVI, CDC analyzed data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) for 1999-2001. This report summarizes the findings from the analysis, which indicate that approximately 8.0% of USVI residents aged >/=18 years have diagnosed diabetes, and the prevalence of diabetes among blacks and Hispanics in USVI is comparable to that among blacks and Hispanics in the 50 states. To prevent the burden of diabetes and diabetes-related complications in residents and to improve the quality of life for persons with diabetes, initiatives in USVI should target all persons with diabetes. (+info)
Acculturation and psychosocial stress show differential relationships to insulin resistance (HOMA) and body fat distribution in two groups of blacks living in the US Virgin Islands.
The objective of this study was to determine whether acculturation and psychosocial stress exert differential effects on body fat distribution and insulin resistance among native-born African Americans and African-Caribbean immigrants living in the US Virgin Islands (USVI). Data collected from a non-diabetic sample of 183 USVI-born African Americans and 296 African-Caribbean immigrants age > 20 on the island of St. Croix, USVI were studied. Information on demographic characteristics, acculturation and psychosocial stress was collected by questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements were taken, and serum glucose and insulin were measured from fasting blood samples. Insulin resistance was estimated by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) method. The results showed that in multivariate regression analyses, controlling for age, education, gender, BMI, waist circumference, family history of diabetes, smoking and alcohol consumption, acculturation was independently related to logarithm of HOMA (InHOMA) scores among USVI-born African Americans, but not among African-Caribbean immigrants. In contrast, among USVI-born African Americans psychosocial stress was not significantly related to InHOMA, while among African-Caribbean immigrants psychosocial stress was independently related to InHOMA in models that included BMI, but not in those which included waist circumference. This study suggests that acculturation and psychosocial stress may have a differential effect on body fat distribution and insulin resistance among native-born and immigrant blacks living in the US Virgin Islands. (+info)
Awareness of stroke warning signs--17 states and the U.S. Virgin Islands, 2001.
Stroke is the third leading cause of death in the United States and a major cause of disabilities among adults. Since 1900, the number of stroke deaths has declined, and substantial advances have been made in the diagnosis and treatment of ischemic stroke during the previous decade; however, the proportion of deaths that occur before patients are transported to hospitals has increased to nearly half of all stroke deaths. One of the national health objectives for 2010 is to increase the proportion of persons who are aware of the early warning symptoms and signs of stroke (objective no. 12.8). To assess public awareness and knowledge of the proper emergency response, CDC analyzed 2001 data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) in 17 states and the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI). This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicated that public awareness of several stroke signs is high, but the ability to recognize the five major warning signs is low. Education campaigns are needed to increase public awareness of stroke signs and the necessity of calling 911 when persons are suffering a possible stroke. (+info)
Recurrence of legionnaires disease at a hotel in the United States Virgin Islands over a 20-year period.
We investigated 3 cases of legionnaires disease (LD) that developed in travelers who stayed at a hotel in the United States Virgin Islands where cases of LD occurred in 1981-1982 and in 1998. The temperature of the potable water at the hotel was in a range that could optimally support the growth of Legionella species, and the potable water was colonized with Legionella pneumophila in 1981-1982 and in 2002-2003. (+info)
Blood pressure control in Hispanics in the antihypertensive and lipid-lowering treatment to prevent heart attack trial.
Historically, blood pressure control in Hispanics has been considerably less than that of non-Hispanic whites and blacks. We compared determinants of blood pressure control among Hispanic white, Hispanic black, non-Hispanic white, and non-Hispanic black participants (N=32 642) during follow-up in a randomized, practice-based, active-controlled trial. Hispanic blacks and whites represented 3% and 16% of the cohort, respectively; 33% were non-Hispanic black and 48% were non-Hispanic white. Hispanics were less likely to be controlled (<140/90 mm Hg) at enrollment, but within 6 to 12 months of follow-up, Hispanics had a greater proportion <140/90 mm Hg compared with non-Hispanics. At 4 years of follow-up, blood pressure was controlled in 72% of Hispanic whites, 69% of Hispanic blacks, 67% of non-Hispanic whites, and 59% of non-Hispanic blacks. Compared with non-Hispanic whites, Hispanic whites had a 20% greater odds of achieving BP control by 2 years of follow-up (odds ratio: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.10 to 1.31) after controlling for demographic variables and comorbidities, Hispanic blacks had a similar odds of achieving BP control (odds ratio: 1.04; 95% CI: 0.86 to 1.25), and non-Hispanic blacks had a 27% lower odds (odds ratio: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.69 to 0.78). We conclude that in all patients high levels of blood pressure control can be achieved with commonly available medications and that Hispanic ethnicity is not associated with inferior control in the setting of a clinical trial in which hypertensive patients had equal access to medical care, and medication was provided at no cost. (+info)