Injuries to riders in the cross country phase of eventing: the importance of protective equipment. (1/219)

OBJECTIVES: To determine the distribution of injuries in the eventing discipline of equestrian sports and the effectiveness of the protective equipment worn. METHODS: Data on all injuries sustained in the cross country phase over fixed obstacles were collected from 54 days of competition from 1992 to 1997. This involved 16,940 rides. RESULTS: Data on a total of 193 injuries were collected, which included two deaths. This represents an injury rate of 1.1%. Head and facial injuries represented the largest group (31%), with one third of these requiring treatment in hospital. All riders were wearing protective helmets and body protectors. CONCLUSIONS: Eventing is one of the most dangerous equestrian sports. Improved protective equipment, which is mandatory for 1999, should reduce the severity of these injuries.  (+info)

The "burner": a common nerve injury in contact sports. (2/219)

A "burner" is a common nerve injury resulting from trauma to the neck and shoulder, usually during sports participation. The injury is most often caused by traction or compression of the upper trunk of the brachial plexus or the fifth or sixth cervical nerve roots. Burners are typically transient, but they can cause prolonged weakness resulting in time loss from athletic participation. Furthermore, they often recur. Treatment consists of restoring range of motion, improving strength and providing protective equipment. Return to sports participation depends primarily on reestablishment of pain-free motion and full recovery of strength and functional status.  (+info)

Surgical emphysema and pneumomediastinum in a child following minor blunt injury to the neck. (3/219)

Largyngotracheal and pharyngoesophageal tears following minor blunt trauma to the neck are uncommon. A child with such an injury is reported and the modes of diagnosis and management are discussed. Patients may initially present with minimal signs and symptoms, but their condition may deteriorate rapidly or insidiously. In the absence of respiratory compromise, conservative management is appropriate, but all patients with significant blunt neck trauma should undergo early direct laryngoscopy under a general anaesthetic.  (+info)

Management of penetrating cervicomediastinal venous trauma. (4/219)

OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the results of management of penetrating cervicomediastinal venous trauma. DESIGN: retrospective study. Materials forty-nine consecutive patients with cervical and thoracic venous injuries treated at a tertiary hospital between 1991 and 1997. Method patients identified from a computerised database and data extracted from case records. RESULTS: forty-five patients were male and the mean age was 25.3 years. Forty injuries were due to stabs and 9 to gunshots. 22 patients were shocked, 25 actively bleeding and 31 were anaemic. Veins injured were internal jugular in 25, subclavian in 15, brachiocephalic in 6, and superior vena cava in 3. Injured veins were ligated in 25 cases and repaired by lateral suture in 22. No complex repairs were performed. There were 8 perioperative deaths and 5 cases of transient postoperative oedema. Venous ligation was not associated with increased risk of postoperative oedema. CONCLUSIONS: ligation is an acceptable form of treatment of cervicomediastinal venous injuries in the presence of haemodynamic instability, or where complex methods of repair would otherwise be necessary.  (+info)

Incidence, site, and nature of injuries in amateur rugby league over three consecutive seasons. (5/219)

OBJECTIVES: To report the incidence, site, and nature of injuries in amateur rugby league over three consecutive seasons. METHODS: Six hundred players registered with an amateur rugby league organisation were studied over three consecutive seasons. All injuries sustained during the amateur rugby league matches were recorded. Information recorded included the date and time of injury, name of injured player, anatomical site and nature of injury, and position of the player. RESULTS: The incidence of injury was 160.6 per 1000 player-position game hours, with forwards having a significantly higher incidence of injury than backs (182.3 per 1000 v 142.0 per 1000, chi2 = 14.60, df = 1, p<0.001). Over 25% of the total injuries (40.6 per 1000) sustained during the three year period were to the head and neck, while injuries to the face (21.3 per 1000, 13.3%), abdomen and thorax (21.3 per 1000, 13.3%), and knee (17.8 per 1000, 11.1%) were less common (chi2 = 21.83, df = 8, p<0.01). Muscular injuries (haematomas and strains) were the most common type of injury (45.7 per 1000, 28.5%, chi2 = 17.98, df = 7, p<0.05). Significantly more injuries occurred in the latter stages of the season (chi2 = 22.94, df = 1, p<0.001), with most injuries (70.8%, chi2 = 162.29, df = 1, p<0.001) sustained in the second half of matches. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that muscular injuries and injuries to the head and neck are the most commonly sustained injuries in amateur rugby league. Furthermore, injuries are more often sustained in the latter stages of the season and during the second half of matches. These findings suggest that fatigue or accumulative microtrauma, or both, may contribute to injuries in amateur rugby league players.  (+info)

Continued experience with physical examination alone for evaluation and management of penetrating zone 2 neck injuries: results of 145 cases. (6/219)

PURPOSE: Our preliminary experience with physical examination alone in the evaluation of penetrating zone 2 neck injuries for vascular trauma was previously reported in 28 patients over a 2-year period (1991-1993). The purpose of the current study was to examine the results of this approach in a much larger group of patients over an 8-year period. METHODS: The medical records for all patients admitted to our level I trauma center (all of them entered into our prospective protocol) between December 1991 and April 1999 with penetrating zone 2 neck trauma were reviewed for their initial presentation and any documented vascular injury. RESULTS: A total of 145 patients made up the study group; in 30 of these patients, the penetrating trajectory also traversed zone 1 or 3. Thirty-one patients (21%) had hard signs of vascular injury (active bleeding, expanding hematoma, bruit/thrill, pulse deficit, central neurologic deficit) and were taken immediately to the operating room; 28 (90%) of these 30 patients had either major arterial or venous injuries requiring operative repair (the false-positive rate for physical examination thus being 10%). Of the 114 patients with no hard signs, 23 underwent arteriography because of proximity of the injury to the vertebral arteries or because the trajectory included another zone. Of these 23 arteriograms, three showed abnormalities, but only one required operative repair. This case had no complications relating to the initial delay. The remaining 91 patients with no hard signs were observed without imaging or surgery for a minimum of 23 hours, and none had any evidence of vascular injury during hospitalization or during the initial 2-week follow-up period (1/114; false-negative rate for physical examination, 0.9%). CONCLUSIONS: This series confirms the earlier report indicating that patients with zone 2 penetrating neck wounds can be safely and accurately evaluated by physical examination alone to confirm or exclude vascular injury. The missed-injury rate is 0.7% (1/145) with this approach, which is comparable to arteriography in accuracy but less costly and noninvasive. Long-term follow-up is needed to confirm this management option.  (+info)

Foreign body in injury--an important evidence. (7/219)

In the present paper, a complete case is discussed, that is from the crime upto judgement in the court of law, from the Forensic point of view. The postmortem examination was conducted by the author in which a metallic fragment of size of a mustard seed was found in a incised wound. On chemical analyzers examination, the metal fragment matched with the suspected weapon, in respect of spectrochemical contents. This evidence became an important part in the investigation for conviction of the accused in the court of law. This indicates that when-ever any foreign body, whatever it may be or of whatever size, should not be neglected while examining the injury before death of after death, since it can become an important piece of evidence.  (+info)

Penetrating neck injuries: analysis of experience from a Canadian trauma centre. (8/219)

OBJECTIVE: To study the demographics and treatment outcome of penetrating neck injuries presenting to a major trauma centre in order to develop a treatment protocol. DESIGN: A case review. SETTING: A trauma centre at a tertiary care institution. PATIENTS: One hundred and thirty consecutive patients who had 134 neck wounds penetrating the platysma and presented to the trauma service between 1979 and 1997. INTERVENTION: Surgical exploration or observation alone. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The location of injury, patient management, number of significant injuries, duration of hospital stay and outcome. RESULTS: Injuries were caused by stab wounds in 124 patients (95%) and gunshot wounds in 6 (5%). The location of injury was zone I (lower neck) in 20 cases (15%), zone II (midportion of the neck) in 108 (81%) and zone III (upper neck) in 5 (4%). The location was not recorded in 1 case. Fifty patients were managed by observation alone and 80 were managed surgically. Neck exploration in 48 asymptomatic patients was negative in 32 (67%). Significant injuries, including major vascular (12), nerve (13) and aerodigestive tract (19) injuries, were identified in 34 patients. Two of the 130 patients (1.5%) died of major vascular injuries. Seventy-six percent of significant injuries, including all zone II major vascular injuries, were symptomatic on presentation. The mean (and standard deviation) hospital stay for asymptomatic patients treated with observation alone and surgical exploration was similar (3.5 [6.02] versus 4.3 [5.46] days respectively, p = 0.575). Long-term disability, all neurologic in nature, was documented in 3 patients managed by observation alone and 6 patients managed by surgical exploration. CONCLUSIONS: Penetrating neck trauma, in particular stab wounds to zone II in asymptomatic patients, is associated with low morbidity and mortality. A selective management protocol with investigations directed by symptoms is the most appropriate approach for the patient population and resource base in this setting.  (+info)