Site of functional bronchopulmonary anastomoses in sheep.
The location of bronchopulmonary anastomoses has long been a topic of discussion, and pre-, post-, and capillary sites have all been demonstrated in postmortem examinations. However, there have been few studies that have provided insight into the patency and function of these anastomoses in the intact lung. To identify these functional sites where the bronchial circulation anastomoses with the pulmonary circulation, we studied sheep lungs in situ serial sectioned with high-resolution computed tomography (CT). Differences in radiodensities of blood, air, and nonionic contrast medium were used to differentiate and localize airways and vessels and to identify the effluent from the bronchial circulation. After an initial series of scans to identify the pulmonary arteries and veins adjacent to airways 2-12 mm in diameter, contrast material was infused into the bronchial artery. In three sheep, the major accumulation of contrast medium was found in pulmonary veins. In one of the sheep, a comparable number of pulmonary arteries and veins contained contrast medium. Serial histologic sections were able to identify small bronchial venules lying within subepithelial bronchial folds that drain directly into pulmonary veins. These results using serial CT and histologic images suggest that drainage from the intraparenchymal bronchial vasculature is predominantly into postcapillary pulmonary vessels. (+info)
Diagnostic yield of bronchoscopy in histologically proven invasive pulmonary aspergillosis.
Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a life-threatening infectious complication in neutropenic patients after high-dose chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Its diagnosis is mainly based on clinical symptoms, and radiological signs on thoracic CT scan. The value of bronchoscopy is controversial. We analyzed the diagnostic yield of bronchoscopy in 23 consecutive patients with histologically proven invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. In seven patients (30%) bronchoscopically obtained specimens were diagnostic for pulmonary fungal infection. Typical hyphae were detected by cytology in six patients and fungal cultures were positive in four cases. Patients with a positive bronchoscopic result presented more often with multiple changes on thoracic CT scan (71%; 5/7), but had received a lower median cumulative dose of amphotericine B (300 mg; 168-3010 mg) compared to patients with non-diagnostic bronchoscopy (25% multiple lesions (4/16); amphotericine dose 1100 mg, 260-2860 mg). The diagnostic yield of bronchoscopy was not associated with clinical symptoms or duration of neutropenia. Bronchoscopy allows the diagnosis of IPA in about one third of patients. Fungal cultures and cytological examination of intrabronchial specimens obtained during bronchoscopy have a high specificity, but its sensitivity is low. It is advisable to perform diagnostic bronchoscopy before starting antifungal therapy. Better diagnostic tools are urgently needed. (+info)
Cardiovascular evidence for an intermediate or higher metabolic rate in an ornithischian dinosaur.
Computerized tomography scans of a ferruginous concretion within the chest region of an ornithischian dinosaur reveal structures that are suggestive of a four-chambered heart and a single systemic aorta. The apparently derived condition of the cardiovascular system in turn suggests the existence of intermediate-to-high metabolic rates among dinosaurs. (+info)
Hepatic and small bowel mucormycosis after chemotherapy in a patient with acute lymphocytic leukemia.
Mucormycosis is a rare but invasive opportunistic fungal infection with increased frequency during chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. The clinical infections due to Mucor include rhinocerebral, pulmonary, cutaneous, gastrointestinal and disseminated diseases. The first two are the most common diseases and all entities are associated with a high mortality rate. Still hepatic involvement of Mucor is rarely reported. We experienced a case of hepatic and small bowel mucormycosis in a 56-year-old woman after induction chemotherapy for B-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia. Initial symptoms were a high fever unresponsive to broad spectrum antibiotics and pain in the left lower abdominal quadrant. It was followed by septic shock, deterioration of icterus and progressively elevated transaminase. An abdominal CT demonstrated multiple hypodense lesions with distinct margins in both lobes of liver and pericolic infiltration at small bowel and ascending colon. Diagnosis was confirmed by biopsy of the liver. The histopathology of the liver showed hyphae with the right-angle branching, typical of mucormycosis. The patient was managed with amphotericin B and operative correction of the perforated part of the small bowel was performed. However, the patient expired due to progressive hepatic failure despite corrective surgery and long-term amphotericin B therapy. (+info)
Isolated splenic metastasis from colorectal carcinoma: a case report.
Isolated splenic metastasis arising from colorectal carcinoma is very rare and there has been only 6 cases reported in the English literature. A new case is presented, and its possible pathogenesis was considered with previously reported cases. A 65-year-old male patient had received a right hemicolectomy for ascending colon cancer 36 months earlier. He was followed up regularly with serial measurement of serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Rising serum CEA was discovered from 33 months postoperatively and CT revealed an isolated splenic metastasis. He therefore underwent splenectomy, which was proven to be a metastatic adenocarcinoma with similar histological feature to the original tumor. As all reported cases showed elevated serum CEA at the time of metastasis, isolated splenic metastasis might be associated with CEA in regard to its biological functions of immunosuppression and adhesion. (+info)
Acute confusion secondary to pneumocephalus in an elderly patient.
PRESENTATION: an 83-year-old man was admitted to hospital with acute confusion 3 days after a direct flight from Australia. OUTCOME: computed tomography (CT) brain scan and magnetic resonance imaging head scan revealed the cause to be pneumocephalus, apparently the result of barotrauma caused by Valsalva manoeuvres when he attempted to unblock his nose during the flight. After 5 days of nursing in the vertical position the patient's Abbreviated Mental Score returned to normal. A CT brain scan 6 weeks later showed complete resolution of the pneumocephalus. (+info)
Neuroblastoma imaging using a combined CT scanner-scintillation camera and 131I-MIBG.
High-dose administration of 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (131I-MIBG) continues to be a promising treatment for neuroblastoma. However, currently used methods of estimating 131I-MIBG uptake in vivo may be too inaccurate to properly monitor patient radiation exposure doses. To improve localization and uptake measurements over currently practiced techniques, we evaluated different methodologies that take advantage of the correlated patient data available from a combined CT-scintillation camera imaging system. METHODS: Serial CT and radionuclide scans of three patients were obtained on a combined imaging system. SPECT images were reconstructed using both filtered backprojection and maximum-likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM). Volumes of interest (VOIs) were defined on anatomic images and automatically correlated to spatial volumes in reconstructed SPECT images. Several radionuclide quantification methods were then compared. First, the mean reconstructed values within coregistered SPECT VOIs were estimated from MLEM reconstructed images. Next, we assumed that reconstructed activity in SPECT voxels were linear combinations of activities present in individual objects, weighted by geometric factors derived from CT images. After calculating the weight factors by modeling the SPECT imaging process with anatomically defined VOIs, least-squares fitting was used to estimate the activities within lesion volumes. We also estimated the lesion activities directly from planar radionuclide images of the patients using similar linearity assumptions. Finally, for comparison, lesion activities were estimated using a standard conjugate view method. RESULTS: Activities were quantified from three patients having a total of six lesions with volumes ranging from 0.67 to 117 mL. Methods that used CT data to quantify lesion activities gave similar results for planar and tomographic radionuclide data. Estimating activity directly from mean VOI values in MLEM-reconstructed images alone consistently provided estimates lower than CT-aided methods because of the limited spatial resolution of SPECT. Values obtained with conjugate views produced differences up to fivefold in comparison with CT-aided methods. CONCLUSION: These results show that anatomic information available from coregistered CT images may improve in vivo localization and measurement of 131I-MIBG uptake in tumors. (+info)
Canines as sentinel species for assessing chronic exposures to air pollutants: part 1. Respiratory pathology.
A complex mixture of air pollutants is present in the ambient air in urban areas. People, animals, and vegetation are chronically and sequentially exposed to outdoor pollutants. The objective of this first of 2 studies is to evaluate by light and electron microscopy the lungs of Mexico City dogs and compare the results to those of 3 less polluted cities in MEXICO: One hundred fifty-two clinically healthy stray mongrel dogs (91 males/61 females), including 43 dogs from 3 less polluted cities, and 109 from southwest and northeast metropolitian Mexico City (SWMMC, NEMMC) were studied. Lungs of dogs living in Mexico City and Cuernavaca exhibited patchy chronic mononuclear cell infiltrates along with macrophages loaded with particulate matter (PM) surrounding the bronchiolar walls and extending into adjacent vascular structures; bronchiolar epithelial and smooth muscle hyperplasia, peribronchiolar fibrosis, microthrombi, and capillary and venule polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) margination. Ultrafine PM was seen in alveolar type I and II cells, endothelial cells, interstitial macrophages (Mtheta), and intravascular Mtheta-like cells. Bronchoalveolar lavage showed significant numbers of alveolar macrophages undergoing proliferation. Exposure to complex mixtures of pollutants-predominantly particulate matter and ozone-is causing lung structural changes induced by the sustained inflammatory process and resulting in airway and vascular remodeling and altered repair. Cytokines released from both, circulating inflammatory and resident lung cells in response to endothelial and epithelial injury may be playing a role in the pathology described here. Deep concern exists for the potential of an increasing rise in lung diseases in child populations exposed to Mexico City's environment. (+info)