Sentinel surveillance for enterovirus 71, Taiwan, 1998.
Outbreaks of enterovirus 71 have been reported around the world since 1969. The most recent outbreak occurred in Taiwan during April-July 1998. This hand, foot, and mouth disease epidemic was detected by a sentinel surveillance system in April at the beginning of the outbreak, and the public was alerted. (+info)
An epidemic of enterovirus 71 infection in Taiwan. Taiwan Enterovirus Epidemic Working Group.
BACKGROUND: Enteroviruses can cause outbreaks of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (characterized by vesicular lesions on the hands, feet, and oral mucosa) or herpangina, usually without life-threatening manifestations. In 1998 an epidemic of enterovirus 71 infection caused hand-foot-and-mouth disease and herpangina in thousands of people in Taiwan, some of whom died. METHODS: We assessed the epidemiologic aspects of this outbreak. Cases of hand-foot-and-mouth disease or herpangina in ambulatory patients were reported to the Taiwan Department of Health by a mean of 818 sentinel physicians. Severe cases in hospitalized patients were reported by 40 medical centers and regional hospitals. Viruses were isolated by 10 hospital laboratories and the department of health. RESULTS: The sentinel physicians reported 129,106 cases of hand-foot-and-mouth disease or herpangina in two waves of the epidemic, which probably represents less than 10 percent of the estimated total number of cases. There were 405 patients with severe disease, most of whom were five years old or younger; severe disease was seen in all regions of the island. Complications included encephalitis, aseptic meningitis, pulmonary edema or hemorrhage, acute flaccid paralysis, and myocarditis. Seventy-eight patients died, 71 of whom (91 percent) were five years of age or younger. Of the patients who died, 65 (83 percent) had pulmonary edema or pulmonary hemorrhage. Among patients from whom a virus was isolated, enterovirus 71 was present in 48.7 percent of outpatients with uncomplicated hand-foot-and-mouth disease or herpangina, 75 percent of hospitalized patients who survived, and 92 percent of patients who died. CONCLUSIONS: Although several enteroviruses were circulating in Taiwan during the 1998 epidemic, enterovirus 71 infection was associated with most of the serious clinical manifestations and with nearly all the deaths. Most of those who died were young, and the majority died of pulmonary edema and pulmonary hemorrhage. (+info)
Neurologic complications in children with enterovirus 71 infection.
BACKGROUND: Enterovirus 71 infection causes hand-foot-and-mouth disease in young children, which is characterized by several days of fever and vomiting, ulcerative lesions in the oral mucosa, and vesicles on the backs of the hands and feet. The initial illness resolves but is sometimes followed by aseptic meningitis, encephalomyelitis, or even acute flaccid paralysis similar to paralytic poliomyelitis. METHODS: We describe the neurologic complications associated with the enterovirus 71 epidemic that occurred in Taiwan in 1998. At three major hospitals we identified 41 children with culture-confirmed enterovirus 71 infection and acute neurologic manifestations. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in 4 patients with acute flaccid paralysis and 24 with rhombencephalitis. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 2.5 years (range, 3 months to 8.2 years). Twenty-eight patients had hand-foot-and-mouth disease (68 percent), and 6 had herpangina (15 percent). The other seven patients had no skin or mucosal lesions. Three neurologic syndromes were identified: aseptic meningitis (in 3 patients); brain-stem encephalitis, or rhombencephalitis (in 37); and acute flaccid paralysis (in 4), which followed rhombencephalitis in 3 patients. In 20 patients with rhombencephalitis, the syndrome was characterized by myoclonic jerks and tremor, ataxia, or both (grade I disease). Ten patients had myoclonus and cranial-nerve involvement (grade II disease). In seven patients the brain-stem infection produced transient myoclonus followed by the rapid onset of respiratory distress, cyanosis, poor peripheral perfusion, shock, coma, loss of the doll's eye reflex, and apnea (grade III disease); five of these patients died within 12 hours after admission. In 17 of the 24 patients with rhombencephalitis who underwent MRI, T2-weighted scans showed high-intensity lesions in the brain stem, most commonly in the pontine tegmentum. At follow-up, two of the patients with acute flaccid paralysis had residual limb weakness, and five of the patients with rhombencephalitis had persistent neurologic deficits, including myoclonus (in one child), cranial-nerve deficits (in two), and ventilator-dependent apnea (in two). CONCLUSIONS: In the 1998 enterovirus 71 epidemic in Taiwan, the chief neurologic complication was rhombencephalitis, which had a fatality rate of 14 percent. The most common initial symptoms were myoclonic jerks, and MRI usually showed evidence of brainstem involvement. (+info)
Molecular epidemiology and evolution of enterovirus 71 strains isolated from 1970 to 1998.
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) (genus Enterovirus, family Picornaviridae), a common cause of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), may also cause severe neurological diseases, such as encephalitis and poliomyelitis-like paralysis. To examine the genetic diversity and rate of evolution of EV71, we have determined and analyzed complete VP1 sequences (891 nucleotides) for 113 EV71 strains isolated in the United States and five other countries from 1970 to 1998. Nucleotide sequence comparisons demonstrated three distinct EV71 genotypes, designated A, B, and C. The genetic variation within genotypes (12% or fewer nucleotide differences) was less than the variation between genotypes (16.5 to 19.7%). Strains of all three genotypes were at least 94% identical to one another in deduced amino acid sequence. The EV71 prototype strain, BrCr-CA-70, isolated in California in 1970, is the sole member of genotype A. Strains isolated in the United States and Australia during the period from 1972 to 1988, a 1994 Colombian isolate, and isolates from a large HFMD outbreak in Malaysia in 1997 are all members of genotype B. Although strains of genotype B continue to circulate in other parts of the world, none have been isolated in the United States since 1988. Genotype C contains strains isolated in 1985 or later in the United States, Canada, Australia, and the Republic of China. The annual rate of evolution within both the B and C genotypes was estimated to be approximately 1.35 x 10(-2) substitutions per nucleotide and is similar to the rate observed for poliovirus. The results indicate that EV71 is a genetically diverse, rapidly evolving virus. Its worldwide circulation and potential to cause severe disease underscore the need for additional surveillance and improved methods to identify EV71 in human disease. (+info)
MR imaging findings of enteroviral encephaloymelitis: an outbreak in Taiwan.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: An outbreak of enterovirus infection occurred in Taiwan from late spring to early fall of 1998. Most of the pediatric infections presented as hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) and herpangina. A small portion of patients had symptoms of polio-like encephalitis and paralysis. The purpose of this study was to review the MR imaging findings in CNS involvement of enterovirus infection. METHODS: Twenty patients who had HFMD and clinical encephalitis were examined with MR imaging. T1-weighted and T2-weighted MR images were obtained. From the rectum, throat, CSF, and peripheral blood, the presence of enterovirus 71 (EV 71) was determined by virus culture, immunofluorescent microscopy, immunologic dot blotting, and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: MR imaging studies of 20 patients showed hyperintensity in the brain stem and spinal cord in 15 patients, as seen on T2-weighted images. The major CNS lesions were in the medulla oblongata, pons, midbrain, and the dentate nuclei of the cerebellum. In some cases, the lesions involved the spinal cord (three cases) as well as the thalamus (two cases) and putamina (one case). Five patients had normal MR imaging results. After the appropriate management for tachycardia and tachypnea, 18 patients recovered within 1 to 2 weeks. In the follow-up MR imaging examination of five patients, the lesions completely disappeared within 2 weeks to 2 months. In two patients who were still respirator-dependent, MR imaging showed the tissue destruction in the posterior portions of the medulla, pons, and the ventral horns of cervical spinal cord. In one patient, most of midbrain was damaged. The presence of EV 71 was detected in specimens from 18 patients. CONCLUSION: Because EV 71 was identified in 18 patients, and no other virus was detected, EV 71 was determined to be the major causative agent of this encephalomyelitis. Brain stem and cervical spinal cord involvement are characteristic findings of enteroviral encephalomyelitis. (+info)
Guillain-Barre syndrome following hand-foot-and-mouth disease.
We describe a patient who developed Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) following hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) which is known to be caused by enterovirus infection. A 35-year-old man developed acute paraparesis and dysesthesia in the four limbs following typical skin eruption of HFMD. Electrophysiologic studies showed peripheral nerve demyelination predominant in the distal terminals. HFMD is a rare cause of meningitis, encephalitis, and polio-like myelitis, but GBS following HFMD has never been described. (+info)
Deaths of children during an outbreak of hand, foot, and mouth disease in sarawak, malaysia: clinical and pathological characteristics of the disease. For the Outbreak Study Group.
From April through June 1997, 29 previously healthy children aged <6 years (median, 1.5 years) in Sarawak, Malaysia, died of rapidly progressive cardiorespiratory failure during an outbreak of hand, foot, and mouth disease caused primarily by enterovirus 71 (EV71). The case children were hospitalized after a short illness (median duration, 2 days) that usually included fever (in 100% of case children), oral ulcers (66%), and extremity rashes (62%). The illness rapidly progressed to include seizures (28%), flaccid limb weakness (17%), or cardiopulmonary symptoms (of 24 children, 17 had chest radiographs showing pulmonary edema, and 24 had echocardiograms showing left ventricular dysfunction), resulting in cardiopulmonary arrest soon after hospitalization (median time, 9 h). Cardiac tissue from 10 patients showed normal myocardium, but central nervous system tissue from 5 patients showed inflammatory changes. Brain-stem specimens from 2 patients were available, and both specimens showed extensive neuronal degeneration, inflammation, and necrosis, suggesting that a central nervous system infection was responsible for the disease, with the cardiopulmonary dysfunction being neurogenic in origin. EV71 and possibly an adenovirus, other enteroviruses, or unknown cofactors are likely responsible for this rapidly fatal disease. (+info)
Acute encephalomyelitis during an outbreak of enterovirus type 71 infection in Taiwan: report of an autopsy case with pathologic, immunofluorescence, and molecular studies.
We report a fatal case of enterovirus type 71 (EV 71) infection in an 8-year-old girl during a summer outbreak of hand, foot, and mouth disease in 1998 in Taiwan. The clinical course was rapidly progressive, with manifestations of hand, foot, and mouth disease, aseptic meningitis, encephalomyelitis, and pulmonary edema. The patient died 24 hours after admission. Postmortem study revealed extensive inflammation in the meninges and central nervous system and marked pulmonary edema with focal hemorrhage. Brain stem and spinal cord were most severely involved. The inflammatory infiltrates consisted largely of neutrophils involving primarily the gray matter with perivascular lymphocytic cuffing, and neuronophagia. The lungs and heart showed no evidence of inflammation. EV 71 was isolated from the fresh brain tissues and identified by immunofluorescence method with type-specific EV 71 monoclonal antibody. It was also confirmed by neutralization test and reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction with sequence analysis. The present case was the first example in which EV 71 was demonstrated to be the causative agent of fatal encephalomyelitis during its epidemic in Taiwan. (+info)