Distinct immunoglobulin class and immunoglobulin G subclass patterns against ganglioside GQ1b in Miller Fisher syndrome following different types of infection.
We studied serum antibodies against gangliosides GQ1b and GM1 in 13 patients with Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS) and in 18 patients with Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) with cranial nerve involvement. Anti-GQ1b titers were elevated in all patients with MFS cases (immunoglobulin G [IgG] > IgA, IgM), and in 8 of the 18 with GBS. Lower frequencies of increased anti-GM1 titers were observed in MFS patients (3 of 13), as well as in GBS patients (5 of 18). During the course of MFS, anti-GQ1b titers of all Ig classes decreased within 3 weeks after onset. By contrast, anti-GM1 titers (mainly IgM) transiently increased during the course of MFS in five of six patients, suggesting a nonspecific secondary immune response. In patients with MFS following respiratory infections, IgG was the major anti-GQ1b Ig class (six of six patients) and IgG3 was the major subclass (five of six). In contrast, four of five patients with MFS following gastrointestinal infections showed predominance of anti-GQ1b IgA or IgM over IgG and predominance of the IgG2 subclass; anti-GQ1b IgG (IgG3) prevailed in one patient only. These distinct Ig patterns strongly suggest that different infections may trigger different mechanisms of anti-GQ1b production, such as via T-cell-dependent as opposed to T-cell-independent pathways. Thus, the origin of antibodies against GQ1b in MFS may be determined by the type of infectious agent that precipitates the disease. (+info)
Bilateral ballism in a patient with overlapping Fisher's and Guillain-Barre syndromes.
A 29 year old woman developed diplopia and ataxic gait. Neurological examination showed total ophthalmoplegia, cerebellar ataxia, and areflexia. Moreover, there was muscle weakness in all four limbs. An overlap of Fisher's and Guillain-Barre syndromes was dignosed. On day 5 she suddenly developed involuntary flinging movements that affected the face and four limbs. Surface EMG showed 1.5-2 Hz rhythmic grouping discharges. The involuntary movements were considered ballism. This is the first report of a patient with Guillain-Barre syndrome and a related disorder who showed ballism. (+info)
IgG anti-GQ1b positive acute ataxia without ophthalmoplegia.
IgG anti-GQ1b antibody was present in a patient with acute ataxia and areflexia without ophthalmoplegia or elementary sensory loss. Sensory nerve conduction studies and somatosensory evoked potentials were normal, but postural body sway analysis showed dysfunction of the proprioceptive afferent system. The clinical presentation and laboratory results for this patient resemble those of Miller Fisher syndrome, except for the lack of ophthalmoplegia. This case may represent part of an IgG anti-GQ1b syndrome. (+info)
Cerebral infarction complicating intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in a patient with Miller Fisher syndrome.
Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) therapy is being increasingly used in a wide range of neurological conditions. However, treatment is expensive and side effects may be severe. A patient with Miller Fisher syndrome who developed cortical blindness as a consequence of occipital infarction precipitated by IVIg is reported on. (+info)
Molecular characterization of Campylobacter jejuni from patients with Guillain-Barre and Miller Fisher syndromes.
Campylobacter jejuni has been identified as the predominant cause of antecedent infection in Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) and Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS). The risk of developing GBS or MFS may be higher after infection with specific C. jejuni types. To investigate the putative clonality, 18 GBS- or MFS-related C. jejuni strains from The Netherlands and Belgium and 17 control strains were analyzed by serotyping (Penner and Lior), restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of PCR products of the flaA gene, amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis. Serotyping revealed 10 different O serotypes and 7 different Lior serotypes, thereby indicating a lack of serotype clustering. Two new O serotypes, O:35 and O:13/65, not previously associated with GBS or MFS were found. Serotype O:19 was encountered in 2 of 18 strains, and none was of serotype O:41. The results of all genotypic methods also demonstrated substantial heterogeneity. No clustering of GBS- or MFS-related strains occurred and no molecular marker capable of separating pathogenic GBS or MFS from non-GBS- or non-MFS-related enteritis strains could be identified in this study. Sialic-acid-containing lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are thought to be involved in the triggering of GBS or MFS through molecular mimicry with gangliosides in human peripheral nerves. Therefore, further characterization of GBS- or MFS-related C. jejuni should target the genes involved in the synthesis of LPS and the incorporation of sialic acid. (+info)
Amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis of Campylobacter jejuni strains isolated from chickens and from patients with gastroenteritis or Guillain-Barre or Miller Fisher syndrome.
The high-resolution genotyping method of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis was used to study the genetic relationships between Campylobacter jejuni strains infecting chickens (n = 54) and those causing gastroenteritis in humans (n = 53). In addition, C. jejuni strains associated with the development of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) (n = 14) and Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS) (n = 4), two related acute paralytic syndromes in human, were included. Strains were isolated between 1989 and 1998 in The Netherlands. The AFLP banding patterns were analyzed with correlation-based and band-based similarity coefficients and UPGMA (unweighted pair group method using average linkages) cluster analysis. All C. jejuni strains showed highly heterogeneous fingerprints, and no fingerprints exclusive for chicken strains or for human strains were obtained. All strains were separated in two distinct genetic groups. In group A the percentage of human strains was significantly higher and may be an indication that genotypes of this group are more frequently associated with human diseases. We conclude that C. jejuni from chickens cannot be distinguished from human strains and that GBS or MFS related strains do not belong to a distinct genetic group. (+info)
Anti-GQ1b IgG antibody syndrome: clinical and immunological range.
OBJECTIVES: To clarify the nosological relation among Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS), Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) with ophthalmoplegia, Bickerstaff's brain stem encephalitis (BBE), and acute ophthalmoparesis without ataxia. Serum samples from patients with each condition often have anti-GQ1b IgG antibody. METHODS: Information on antecedent illness, initial symptoms, neurological signs during the illness, and CSF findings were reviewed in 194 patients with anti-GQ1b IgG. It was determined whether overlapping MFS and GBS (MFS/GBS), as well as overlapping BBE and GBS (BBE/GBS), is explained by the combined action of anti-GQ1b IgG and anti-GM1 or anti-GD1a IgG, serological markers of GBS. RESULTS: Based on the diagnostic criteria, all the patients with acute ophthalmoparesis, MFS, MFS/GBS, BBE/GBS, and BBE had external ophthalmoplegia; all the patients with MFS, MFS/GBS, or GBS had hyporeflexia or areflexia; and all those with MFS and BBE showed ataxia. Tendon reflexes were decreased or absent in 91% of those with BBE/GBS, 67% of those with BBE, and 53% of those with acute ophthalmoparesis. Ataxia was present in 68% of the patients with MFS/GBS and 45% of those with BBE/GBS. Antecedent illness caused by upper respiratory tract infection had occurred in 60% to 80% of these patients, and CSF albuminocytological dissociation in 25% to 75%. Anti-GM1 or anti-GD1a IgG was present in 50% of those with GBS, 35% of those with MFS/GBS, 27% of those with BBE/GBS, 16% of those with MFS, and 8% of those with BBE. CONCLUSIONS: These findings together with the common autoantibody (anti-GQ1b IgG) suggest that a common autoimmune mechanism functions in the pathogenesis of these illnesses. In a larger study, it was confirmed clinically that MFS, GBS, BBE, and acute ophthalmoparesis are closely related, forming a continuous range. This is supported by the immunological findings. The term "anti-GQ1b IgG antibody syndrome" is not intended to be used as a clinical diagnosis, but recognition of this syndrome is useful for understanding the aetiological relation among the various illnesses and for introducing the established treatments of GBS for use with other conditions. (+info)
Guillain-Barre syndrome- and Miller Fisher syndrome-associated Campylobacter jejuni lipopolysaccharides induce anti-GM1 and anti-GQ1b Antibodies in rabbits.
Campylobacter jejuni infections are thought to induce antiganglioside antibodies in patients with Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) and Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS) by molecular mimicry between C. jejuni lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and gangliosides. We used purified LPS fractions from five Campylobacter strains to induce antiganglioside responses in rabbits. The animals that received injections with LPS from GBS-associated strains developed anti-GM1 and anti-GA1 antibodies. Animals injected with LPS from one MFS-related C. jejuni strain produced anti-GQ1b antibodies. Rabbits that were injected with Penner O:3 LPS had a strong anti-LPS response, but no antiganglioside reactivity was observed. The antiganglioside specificity in the rabbits reflected the specificity in the patients from whom the strains were isolated. In conclusion, our results indicate that an immune response against GBS- and MFS-associated C. jejuni LPS results in antiganglioside antibodies. These results provide strong support for molecular mimicry as a mechanism in the induction of antiganglioside antibodies following infections. (+info)