Synthesis and kinetic evaluation of 4-deoxymaltopentaose and 4-deoxymaltohexaose as inhibitors of muscle and potato alpha-glucan phosphorylases.
alpha-Glucan phosphorylases degrade linear or branched oligosaccharides via a glycosyl transfer reaction, occurring with retention of configuration, to generate alpha-glucose-1-phosphate (G1P). We report here the chemoenzymic synthesis of two incompetent oligosaccharide substrate analogues, 4-deoxymaltohexaose (4DG6) and 4-deoxymaltopentaose (4DG5), for use in probing this mechanism. A kinetic analysis of the interactions of 4DG5 and 4DG6 with both muscle and potato phosphorylases was completed to provide insight into the nature of the binding mode of oligosaccharide to phosphorylase. The 4-deoxy-oligosaccharides bind competitively with maltopentaose and non-competitively with respect to orthophosphate or G1P in each case, indicating binding in the oligosaccharide binding site. Further, 4DG5 and 4DG6 were found to bind to potato and muscle phosphorylases some 10-40-fold tighter than does maltopentaose. Similar increases in affinity as a consequence of 4-deoxygenation were observed previously for the binding of polymeric glycogen analogues to rabbit muscle phosphorylase [Withers (1990) Carbohydr. Res. 196, 61-73]. (+info)
Simultaneous antisense inhibition of two starch-synthase isoforms in potato tubers leads to accumulation of grossly modified amylopectin.
A chimaeric antisense construct was used to reduce the activities of the two major starch-synthase isoforms in potato tubers simultaneously. A range of reductions in total starch-synthase activities were found in the resulting transgenic plants, up to a maximum of 90% inhibition. The reduction in starch-synthase activity had a profound effect on the starch granules, which became extremely distorted in appearance compared with the control lines. Analysis of the starch indicated that the amounts produced in the tubers, and the amylose content of the starch, were not affected by the reduction in activity. In order to understand why the starch granules were distorted, amylopectin was isolated and the constituent chain lengths analysed. This indicated that the amylopectin was very different to that of the control. It contained more chains of fewer than 15 glucose units in length, and fewer of between 15 and 80 glucose units. In addition, the amylopectin contained more very long chains. Amylopectin from plants repressed in just one of the activities of the two starch-synthase isoforms, which we have reported upon previously, were also analysed. Using a technique different to that used previously we show that both isoforms also affect the amylopectin, but in a way that is different to when both isoforms are repressed together. (+info)
Polynucleotide probes that target a hypervariable region of 16S rRNA genes to identify bacterial isolates corresponding to bands of community fingerprints.
Temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) is well suited for fingerprinting bacterial communities by separating PCR-amplified fragments of 16S rRNA genes (16S ribosomal DNA [rDNA]). A strategy was developed and was generally applicable for linking 16S rDNA from community fingerprints to pure culture isolates from the same habitat. For this, digoxigenin-labeled polynucleotide probes were generated by PCR, using bands excised from TGGE community fingerprints as a template, and applied in hybridizations with dot blotted 16S rDNA amplified from bacterial isolates. Within 16S rDNA, the hypervariable V6 region, corresponding to positions 984 to 1047 (Escherichia coli 16S rDNA sequence), which is a subset of the region used for TGGE (positions 968 to 1401), best met the criteria of high phylogenetic variability, required for sufficient probe specificity, and closely flanking conserved priming sites for amplification. Removal of flanking conserved bases was necessary to enable the differentiation of closely related species. This was achieved by 5' exonuclease digestion, terminated by phosphorothioate bonds which were synthesized into the primers. The remaining complementary strand was removed by single-strand-specific digestion. Standard hybridization with truncated probes allowed differentiation of bacteria which differed by only two bases within the probe target site and 1.2% within the complete 16S rDNA. However, a truncated probe, derived from an excised TGGE band of a rhizosphere community, hybridized with three phylogenetically related isolates with identical V6 sequences. Only one of the isolates comigrated with the excised band in TGGE, which was shown to be due to identical sequences, demonstrating the utility of a combined TGGE and V6 probe approach. (+info)
Divinyl ether fatty acid synthesis in late blight-diseased potato leaves.
We conducted a study of the patterns and dynamics of oxidized fatty acid derivatives (oxylipins) in potato leaves infected with the late-blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Two 18-carbon divinyl ether fatty acids, colneleic acid and colnelenic acid, accumulated during disease development. To date, there are no reports that such compounds have been detected in higher plants. The divinyl ether fatty acids accumulate more rapidly in potato cultivar Matilda (a cultivar with increased resistance to late blight) than in cultivar Bintje, a susceptible cultivar. Colnelenic acid reached levels of up to approximately 24 nmol (7 microgram) per g fresh weight of tissue in infected leaves. By contrast, levels of members of the jasmonic acid family did not change significantly during pathogenesis. The divinyl ethers also accumulated during the incompatible interaction of tobacco with tobacco mosaic virus. Colneleic and colnelenic acids were found to be inhibitory to P. infestans, suggesting a function in plant defense for divinyl ethers, which are unstable compounds rarely encountered in biological systems. (+info)
The covalent attachment of polyamines to proteins in plant mitochondria.
Plant mitochondria from both potato and mung bean incorporated radioactivity into acid insoluble material when incubated with labelled polyamines (spermine, spermidine and putrescine). Extensive washing of mitochondrial precipitates with trichloroacetic acid and the excess of cold polyamine failed to remove bound radioactivity. Addition of nonradioactive polyamine stopped further incorporation of radioactivity but did not release radioactivity already bound. The radioactivity is incorporated into the membrane fraction. The labelling process has all the features of an enzymatic reaction: it is long lasting with distinctive kinetics peculiar to each polyamine, it is temperature dependent and is affected by N-ethylmaleimide. The latter inhibits the incorporation of putrescine but stimulates the incorporation of spermine and spermidine. Treatment of prelabelled mitochondria with pepsin releases bound radioactivity thus indicating protein to be the ligand for the attachment of polyamines. HPLC of mitochondrial hydrolysates revealed that the radioactivity bound to mitochondria is polyamines; traces of acetyl polyamines were also found in some samples. On autoradiograms of SDS/PAGE gels several radioactive bands of proteins were detected. Protein sequencing of labelled spots from a 2D gel gave a sequence which was 60% identical to catalase. We suggest that the attachment of polyamines to mitochondrial proteins occurs cotranslationally possibly via transglutaminases. (+info)
Conversion of cucumber linoleate 13-lipoxygenase to a 9-lipoxygenating species by site-directed mutagenesis.
Multiple lipoxygenase sequence alignments and structural modeling of the enzyme/substrate interaction of the cucumber lipid body lipoxygenase suggested histidine 608 as the primary determinant of positional specificity. Replacement of this amino acid by a less-space-filling valine altered the positional specificity of this linoleate 13-lipoxygenase in favor of 9-lipoxygenation. These alterations may be explained by the fact that H608V mutation may demask the positively charged guanidino group of R758, which, in turn, may force an inverse head-to-tail orientation of the fatty acid substrate. The R758L+H608V double mutant exhibited a strongly reduced reaction rate and a random positional specificity. Trilinolein, which lacks free carboxylic groups, was oxygenated to the corresponding (13S)-hydro(pero)xy derivatives by both the wild-type enzyme and the linoleate 9-lipoxygenating H608V mutant. These data indicate the complete conversion of a linoleate 13-lipoxygenase to a 9-lipoxygenating species by a single point mutation. It is hypothesized that H608V exchange may alter the orientation of the substrate at the active site and/or its steric configuration in such a way that a stereospecific dioxygen insertion at C-9 may exclusively take place. (+info)
Immunization with potato plants expressing VP60 protein protects against rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus.
The major structural protein VP60 of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) has been produced in transgenic potato plants under the control of a cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter or a modified 35S promoter that included two copies of a strong transcriptional enhancer. Both types of promoters allowed the production of specific mRNAs and detectable levels of recombinant VP60, which were higher for the constructs carrying the modified 35S promoter. Rabbits immunized with leaf extracts from plants carrying this modified 35S promoter showed high anti-VP60 antibody titers and were fully protected against the hemorrhagic disease. (+info)
Differential import of nuclear-encoded tRNAGly isoacceptors into solanum Tuberosum mitochondria.
In potato ( Solanum tuberosum ) mitochondria, about two-thirds of the tRNAs are encoded by the mitochondrial genome and one-third is imported from the cytosol. In the case of tRNAGly isoacceptors, a mitochondrial-encoded tRNAGly(GCC) was found in potato mitochondria, but this is likely to be insufficient to decode the four GGN glycine codons. In this work, we identified a cytosolic tRNAGly(UCC), which was found to be present in S.tuberosum mitochondria. The cytosolic tRNAGly(CCC) was also present in mitochondria, but to a lesser extent. By contrast, the cytosolic tRNAGly(GCC) could not be detected in mitochondria. This selective import of tRNAGly isoacceptors into S. tuberosum mitochondria raises further questions about the mechanism under-lying the specificity of the import process. (+info)