Patterns of evolutionary rate variation among genes of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway.
The anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway is responsible for the production of anthocyanin pigments in plant tissues and shares a number of enzymes with other biochemical pathways. The six core structural genes of this pathway have been cloned and characterized in two taxonomically diverse plant species (maize and snapdragon). We have recently cloned these genes for a third species, the common morning glory, Ipomoea purpurea. This additional information provides an opportunity to examine patterns of evolution among genes within a single biochemical pathway. We report here that upstream genes in the anthocyanin pathway have evolved substantially more slowly than downstream genes and suggest that this difference in evolutionary rates may be explained by upstream genes being more constrained because they participate in several different biochemical pathways. In addition, regulatory genes associated with the anthocyanin pathway tend to evolve more rapidly than the structural genes they regulate, suggesting that adaptive evolution of flower color may be mediated more by regulatory than by structural genes. Finally, for individual anthocyanin genes, we found an absence of rate heterogeneity among three major angiosperm lineages. This rate constancy contrasts with an accelerated rate of evolution of three CHS-like genes in the Ipomoea lineage, indicating that these three genes have diverged without coordinated adjustment by other pathway genes. (+info)
The active site of purple acid phosphatase from sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) metal content and spectroscopic characterization.
Purple acid phosphatase from sweet potatoes Ipomoea batatas (spPAP) has been purified to homogeneity and characterized using spectroscopic investigations. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry analysis revealed a molecular mass of approximately 112 kDa. The metal content was determined by X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation. In contrast to previous studies it is shown that spPAP contains a Fe(III)-Zn(II) center in the active site as previously determined for the purple acid phosphatase from red kidney bean (kbPAP). Moreover, an alignment of the amino acid sequences suggests that the residues involved in metal-binding are identical in both plant PAPs. Tyrosine functions as one of the ligands for the chromophoric Fe(III). Low temperature EPR spectra of spPAP show a signal near g = 4.3, characteristic for high-spin Fe(III) in a rhombic environment. The Tyr-Fe(III) charge transfer transition and the EPR signal are both very sensitive to changes in pH. The pH dependency strongly suggests the presence of an ionizable group with a pKa of 4.7, arising from an aquo ligand coordinated to Fe(III). EPR and UV/visible studies of spPAP in the presence of the inhibitors phosphate or arsenate suggest that both anions bind to Fe(III) in the binuclear center replacing the coordinated water or hydroxide ligand necessary for hydrolysis. The conserved histidine residues of spPAP corresponding to His202 and His296 in kbPAP probably interact in catalysis. (+info)
Antimutagenicity of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) roots.
Antimutagenicity of the water extracts prepared from the storage roots of four varieties of sweetpotato with different flesh colors was investigated using Salmonella typhimurium TA 98. The extract from the whole roots of the purple-colored Ayamurasaki variety effectively decreased the reverse mutation induced not only by Trp-P-1, Trp-P-2, IQ, B[a]P, and 4-NQO but also by dimethyl sulfoxide extracts of grilled beef. Comparison of the inhibitory activity of the extracts from the normal Ayamurasaki and its anthocyanin-deficient mutant one suggested that the anthocyanin pigment in the flesh decreases the mutagenic activity of the mutagens as heterocyclic amines. Two anthocyanin pigments purified from purple-colored sweet-potato, 3-(6,6'-caffeylferulylsophoroside)-5-glucoside of cyanidin (YGM-3) and peonidin (YGM-6) effectively inhibited the reverse mutation induced by heterocyclic amines, Trp-P-1, Trp-P-2, and IQ in the presence of rat liver microsomal activation systems. (+info)
Genome mapping in capsicum and the evolution of genome structure in the solanaceae.
We have created a genetic map of Capsicum (pepper) from an interspecific F2 population consisting of 11 large (76.2-192.3 cM) and 2 small (19.1 and 12.5 cM) linkage groups that cover a total of 1245.7 cM. Many of the markers are tomato probes that were chosen to cover the tomato genome, allowing comparison of this pepper map to the genetic map of tomato. Hybridization of all tomato-derived probes included in this study to positions throughout the pepper map suggests that no major losses have occurred during the divergence of these genomes. Comparison of the pepper and tomato genetic maps showed that 18 homeologous linkage blocks cover 98.1% of the tomato genome and 95.0% of the pepper genome. Through these maps and the potato map, we determined the number and types of rearrangements that differentiate these species and reconstructed a hypothetical progenitor genome. We conclude there have been 30 breaks as part of 5 translocations, 10 paracentric inversions, 2 pericentric inversions, and 4 disassociations or associations of genomic regions that differentiate tomato, potato, and pepper, as well as an additional reciprocal translocation, nonreciprocal translocation, and a duplication or deletion that differentiate the two pepper mapping parents. (+info)
Epigenetic interactions among three dTph1 transposons in two homologous chromosomes activate a new excision-repair mechanism in petunia.
Unstable anthocyanin3 (an3) alleles of petunia with insertions of the Activator/Dissociation-like transposon dTph1 fall into two classes that differ in their genetic behavior. Excision of the (single) dTph1 insertion from class 1 an3 alleles results in the formation of a footprint, similar to the "classical" mechanism observed for excisions of maize and snapdragon transposons. By contrast, dTph1 excision and gap repair in class 2 an3 alleles occurs via a newly discovered mechanism that does not generate a footprint at the empty donor site. This novel mechanism depends on the presence of two additional dTph1 elements: one located in cis, 30 bp upstream of the an3 translation start in the same an3 allele, and a homologous copy, which is located in trans in the homologous an3 allele. Absence of the latter dTph1 element causes a heritable suppression of dTph1 excision-repair from the homologous an3 allele by the novel mechanism, which to some extent resembles paramutation. Thus, an epigenetic interaction among three dTph1 copies activates a novel recombination mechanism that eliminates a transposon insertion. (+info)
Analysis of cDNAs expressed during first cell division of petunia petal protoplast cultures using expressed sequence tags.
A large-scale sequence analysis of randomly selected cDNA clones was performed to isolate numerous genes in petunia petal protoplast cultures. We have partially sequenced 1158 randomly selected genes of the cDNA library constructed from 2-6 d cultured petal protoplasts. Three hundred and sixty-five different genes were identified, 25% of which showed significant similarity to existing sequences in the petunia, and an array of other organisms. In this report, 90 independent genes are analyzed in detail. A functional categorization of the database-matched expressed sequence tags (ESTs) showed that defense- or stress-related genes, as well as genes involved in the primary metabolic pathways and in the transcriptional or translational apparatus are abundantly represented. In particular, ESTs were identified with apparent homologies to the cyclin-dependent kinase, histone, actin-depolymerizing factor, proteasome, and ubiquitin which are expected to be related to cell division or to cell cycle control. (+info)
Purification of chitinolytic protein from Rehmannia glutinosa showing N-terminal amino acid sequence similarity to thaumatin-like proteins.
We have purified a 21-kDa protein, designated as P1, from Rehmannia glutinosa to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation, anion exchange chromatography, hydrophobic interaction chromatography, and preparative native PAGE. The purified P1 had chitin degradation activity. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of P1 indicated that it is very similar to those of thaumatin and other reported thaumatin-like proteins. (+info)
Molecular analysis of the anthocyanin2 gene of petunia and its role in the evolution of flower color.
The shape and color of flowers are important for plant reproduction because they attract pollinators such as insects and birds. Therefore, it is thought that alterations in these traits may result in the attraction of different pollinators, genetic isolation, and ultimately, (sympatric) speciation. Petunia integrifolia and P. axillaris bear flowers with different shapes and colors that appear to be visited by different insects. The anthocyanin2 (an2) locus, a regulator of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway, is the main determinant of color differences. Here, we report an analysis of molecular events at the an2 locus that occur during Petunia spp evolution. We isolated an2 by transposon tagging and found that it encodes a MYB domain protein, indicating that it is a transcription factor. Analysis of P. axillaris subspecies with white flowers showed that they contain an2(-) alleles with two alternative frameshifts at one site, apparently caused by the insertion and subsequent excision of a transposon. A third an2(-) allele has a nonsense mutation elsewhere, indicating that it arose independently. The distribution of polymorphisms in an2(-) alleles suggests that the loss of an2 function and the consequent changes in floral color were not the primary cause for genetic separation of P. integrifolia and P. axillaris. Rather, they were events that occurred late in the speciation process, possibly to reinforce genetic isolation and complete speciation. (+info)