Insulin action on heart and skeletal muscle glucose uptake in weight lifters and endurance athletes.
There are no studies comparing myocardial metabolism between endurance- and resistance-trained athletes. We used 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose and positron emission tomography combined with the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp technique to compare the ability of insulin to stimulate myocardial, skeletal muscle, and whole body glucose uptake between weight lifters (n = 8), endurance athletes (n = 8), and sedentary men (n = 9). Maximal aerobic power (ml. kg- 1. min- 1) was higher in the endurance athletes (71 +/- 2, P < 0.001) than the weight lifters (42 +/- 2) and the sedentary men (42 +/- 2). Skeletal muscle glucose uptake (micromol. kg muscle- 1. min- 1) was enhanced in the endurance athletes (125 +/- 16, P < 0.01) but was similar in weight lifters (59 +/- 12) and sedentary (63 +/- 7) men. The rate of glucose uptake per unit mass of myocardium (micromol. kg- 1. min- 1) was similarly decreased in endurance athletes (544 +/- 50) and weight lifters (651 +/- 45) compared with sedentary men (1,041 +/- 78, P < 0.001 vs. endurance athletes and weight lifters). Both groups of athletes had increased left ventricular mass. Consequently, total left ventricular glucose uptake was comparable in all groups. These data demonstrate that aerobic but not resistance training is associated with enhanced insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle. Despite this, cardiac changes are remarkably similar in weight lifters and endurance athletes and are characterized by an increase in left ventricular mass and diminished insulin-stimulated glucose uptake per heart mass. (+info)
Echocardiographic examination of cardiac structure and function in elite cross trained male and female Alpine skiers.
OBJECTIVE: To assess cardiac structure and function in elite cross-trained male and female athletes (Alpine skiers). METHODS: Sixteen athletes (10 male, six female) and 19 healthy sedentary control subjects (12 male, seven female) volunteered to take part in the study. Basic anthropometry determined height, body mass, body surface area, and fat free mass. Cardiac dimensions and function were determined by two dimensional, M mode, and Doppler echocardiography. Absolute data and data corrected for body size (allometrically determined) were compared by two way analysis of variance and post hoc Scheffe tests. RESULTS: Absolute left ventricular internal dimension in diastole (LVIDd), septal and posterior wall thickness and left ventricular mass were larger in athletes than controls (p < 0.05) and also increased in the men (p < 0.05) compared with women (except for septal thickness in controls). An increased LVIDd, septal thickness, posterior wall thickness, and left ventricular mass in athletes persisted after correction for body size except when LVIDd was scaled by fat free mass. Cardiac dimensions did not differ between the sexes after correction for body size. All functional indices were similar between groups. CONCLUSION: There is evidence of both left ventricular chamber dilatation and wall enlargement in cross trained athletes compared with controls. Differences in absolute cardiac dimensions between the sexes were primarily due to greater body dimensions in the men. (+info)
Bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage findings in cross-country skiers with and without "ski asthma".
Bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine with asthma-like symptoms ("ski asthma") is frequent in elite cross-country skiers. To further the understanding of "ski asthma", 10 nonasthmatic, nonatopic controls and 30 adolescent elite skiers were investigated by bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Nine skiers were atopic without allergy symptoms. Compared with controls, the macroscopic inflammatory index in the proximal airways in skiers was three-fold greater (median (interquartile range) 3.0 (2.0-5.0) versus 1.0 (0.8-2.3), p=0.008). In the BAL fluid, skiers had significantly greater total cell (p<0.05) and percentage lymphocyte (p<0.01) and mast cell counts (p<0.05). Neutrophil and eosinophil counts were not significantly different and eosinophil cationic protein was not detected. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha and myeloperoxidase were detected in 12 (40%) and six (20%) skiers, respectively. In skiers with ski asthma, the inflammatory index was greater than in nonasthmatic skiers. Lymphocyte subtypes and activation markers, and concentration of albumin, fibronectin and hyaluronan were not different from those in controls. Cross-country skiers have a minor to moderate degree of macroscopic inflammation in the proximal airways at bronchoscopy and a bronchoalveolar lavage fluid profile which differs in several respects from healthy controls. Skiers with ski asthma tend to show even higher degrees of bronchial inflammation. (+info)
Placebo-controlled study of inhaled budesonide on indices of airway inflammation in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and bronchial biopsies in cross-country skiers.
BACKGROUND: Asthma-like symptoms, methacholine hyperresponsiveness, use of inhaled steroids, airway inflammation, and increased tenascin expression in the reticular basement membrane have been reported in competitive cross-country skiers. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of inhaled budesonide, 400 mug twice daily, on indices of airway inflammation in 'ski asthma', defined as asthma-like symptoms within the previous year and bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. METHODS: A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled parallel-group bronchial biopsy and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) study of 25 (19 male) competitive cross-country skiers (mean age 18 (16-20) years for a mean (range) treatment period of 22 (10-32) weeks over the competitive season. RESULTS: No changes were seen regarding cellular inflammation in the bronchial mucosa or tenascin expression. In the BAL fluid, both groups had a significant decrease in activated T-suppressor (CD8) lymphocytes and an increase in macrophages, with no differences across the groups. Within the budesonide group, there was a decrease in IL2 receptor-activated T-helper lymphocytes and an improvement in FEV(1). Asthma-like symptoms were unchanged in 17 (68%) skiers. Methacholine provocation test was negative in 15 subjects, and remained positive in 5 subjects in each group. The improvement in bronchial responsiveness occurred in both groups and was not accompanied by a decrease in cellular inflammation. CONCLUSIONS: We were unable to show any clear beneficial effect of budesonide in 'ski asthma'. As changes in training intensity probably accounted for the spontaneous improvement in bronchial responsiveness, more attention should be directed at reducing environmental stress to the airways than at attempting pharmacological modulation of induced inflammatory changes. (+info)
Bioremediation (natural attenuation and biostimulation) of diesel-oil-contaminated soil in an alpine glacier skiing area.
We investigated the feasibility of bioremediation as a treatment option for a chronically diesel-oil-polluted soil in an alpine glacier area at an altitude of 2,875 m above sea level. To examine the efficiencies of natural attenuation and biostimulation, we used field-incubated lysimeters (mesocosms) with unfertilized and fertilized (N-P-K) soil. For three summer seasons (July 1997 to September 1999), we monitored changes in hydrocarbon concentrations in soil and soil leachate and the accompanying changes in soil microbial counts and activity. A significant reduction in the diesel oil level could be achieved. At the end of the third summer season (after 780 days), the initial level of contamination (2,612 +/- 70 microg of hydrocarbons g [dry weight] of soil(-1)) was reduced by (50 +/- 4)% and (70 +/- 2)% in the unfertilized and fertilized soil, respectively. Nonetheless, the residual levels of contamination (1,296 +/- 110 and 774 +/- 52 microg of hydrocarbons g [dry weight] of soil(-1) in the unfertilized and fertilized soil, respectively) were still high. Most of the hydrocarbon loss occurred during the first summer season ([42 +/- 6]% loss) in the fertilized soil and during the second summer season ([41 +/- 4]% loss) in the unfertilized soil. In the fertilized soil, all biological parameters (microbial numbers, soil respiration, catalase and lipase activities) were significantly enhanced and correlated significantly with each other, as well as with the residual hydrocarbon concentration, pointing to the importance of biodegradation. The effect of biostimulation of the indigenous soil microorganisms declined with time. The microbial activities in the unfertilized soil fluctuated around background levels during the whole study. (+info)
Organisation of safety measures in an Alpine World Junior Championship.
OBJECTIVES: To study the implementation of skiing safety during the Alpine World Junior Championship of 1995. METHODS: A map of the area was made with descriptions of the slopes and all its facilities and the security measures along the course. The number of competitors who started and any injuries reported were recorded in a questionnaire. RESULTS: A total of 452 girls and 546 boys started in the different races. Only four injuries were recorded, all in girls. The overall injury rate was 4 per 1000 runs. An injury rate of 8.3 per 1000 runs was recorded in the downhill. One skier had a possibly severe injury (ISS = 14) in the downhill; the rest of the injuries were minor (ISS = 1). The mean ISS was 4.3 and the total ISS was 17. CONCLUSIONS: A significantly higher injury rate was recorded for young female than young male racers. The injury rate was significantly higher in downhill than the other alpine disciplines in the Alpine World Junior Championship. The injury rate was not significantly different from that recorded one year previously for Olympic racers, and juniors therefore need the same safety measures as Olympic racers. (+info)
Snowboarding injuries in children.
OBJECTIVE: To study injury patterns of snowboarding trauma in children. DESIGN: A retrospective case series. SETTING: A major pediatric trauma centre. PATIENTS: A cohort of 113 children (97 boys, 16 girls), mean age 13.9 years, who sustained 118 injuries secondary to snowboarding. INTERVENTIONS: All fractures were treated by immobilization in a cast; 19 children required a closed reduction. OUTCOME MEASURES: Sex and age of patients, mechanism of injury, injury sustained, treatments and complications. RESULTS: Falls on the outstretched hand from a loss of balance accounted for 66 (57%) of the injuries, uncontrolled falls for 42 (36%) and collisions for 5 (4%). Seventy-nine percent of the injuries were to the upper extremity, whereas 7% were to the lower extremity. CONCLUSIONS: The predominance of snowboarding injuries of the upper extremity seen in children differs significantly from those in adults in whom lower extremity injuries are more common. (+info)
Snow sports injuries in Scotland: a case-control study.
OBJECTIVES: To examine the incidence and patterns of snow sports injuries at the three largest commercial ski areas in Scotland and to identify factors associated with injury risk. METHODS: A prospective case-control study of all injured people at Cairngorm, Glenshee, and Nevis Range ski areas during the 1999-2000 winter season. Personal details, snow sports related variables, diagnosis, and treatment were recorded. Control data were collected at random from uninjured people at all three areas. Random counts were performed to analyse the composition of the on slope population. RESULTS: A total of 732 injuries were recorded in 674 people. Control data were collected from 336 people. The injury rate for the study was 3.7 injuries per 1000 skier days. Alpine skiers comprised 67% of the on slope population, snowboarders 26%, skiboarders 4%, and telemark skiers 2%. Lower limb injuries and sprains were the commonest injuries in alpine skiers and skiboarders. Snowboarders sustained more injuries to the upper limb and axial areas. Skiboarders and snowboarders had a higher incidence of fractures. After adjustment for other variables, three factors were all independently associated with injury: snowboarding (odds ratio (OR) 4.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.65 to 10.08), alpine skiing (OR 3.82, CI 1.6 to 9.13), and age <16 years (OR 1.9, CI 1.14 to 3.17). More than five days of experience in the current season and at least one week of experience in total had a protective effect against injury. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a change in the composition of the alpine population at Scottish ski areas, the overall rate and pattern of injury are similar to those reported previously in comparable studies. Several factors are associated with an increased risk of injury and should be targeted in future injury prevention campaigns. (+info)