Anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive effects of triterpene cinnamates and acetates from shea fat.
Four triterpene acetates, alpha-amyrin acetate (1a), beta-amyrin acetate (2a), lupeol acetate (3a), and butyrospermol acetate (4a), and four triterpene cinnamates, alpha-amyrin cinnamate (1c), beta-amyrin cinnamate (2c), lupeol cinnamate (3c), and butyrospermol cinnamate (4c), were isolated from the kernel fat (n-hexane extract) of the shea tree (Vitellaria paradoxa; Sapotaceae). Upon evaluation of these eight triterpene esters for inhibitory activity against 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced inflammation (1 microg/ear) in mice, all of the compounds tested exhibited marked anti-inflammatory activity, with ID50 values in the range of 0.15-0.75 micromol/ear, and among which compound 3c showed the highest activity with ID(50) of 0.15 micromol/ear. Compound 3c (10 mg/kg) further exhibited anti-inflammatory activity on rat hind paw edema induced by carrageenan, with the percentage of inflammation at 1, 3, and 5 h of 35.4, 41.5, and 45.5%, respectively. The eight triterpene esters were then evaluated for their inhibitory effects on Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) in Raji cells as a primary screening test for inhibitors of tumor promoters. All the compounds showed moderate inhibitory effects. Furthermore, compound 3c exhibited inhibitory effect on skin tumor promotion in an in vivo two-stage carcinogenesis test using 7,12-dimethylbenz [a] anthracene (DMBA) as an initiator and TPA as a promoter. The biological activities of triterpene acetate and cinnamate esters, together with the exceptionally high levels of these triterpenes in shea fat, indicate that shea nuts and shea fat (shea butter) constitute a significant source of anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor promoting compounds. (+info)
Triterpene alcohol and fatty acid composition of shea nuts from seven African countries.
The content and composition of triterpene alcohol fractions of the non-saponifiable lipids (NSL) along with the fatty acid composition of the kernel fats (n-hexane extracts) of the shea tree (Vitellaria paradoxa; Sapotaceae) were determined for 36 samples from seven sub-Saharan countries: Cote d' Ivoire, Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroun, Chad, Sudan, and Uganda. The fat content of the kernels, proportion of NSL in the fats, and triterpene alcohols in the NSL are in the range of 30-54, 2-12, and 22-72%, respectively. The triterpene alcohol fractions contained alpha-amyrin (1), beta-amyrin (2), lupeol (3), and butyrospermol (4) as the major constituents along with minor or trace amounts of psi-taraxasterol (5), taraxasterol (6), parkeol (7), 24-methylene-24-dihydroparkeol (8), 24-methylenecycloartanol (9), dammaradienol (10), and 24-methylenedammarenol (11). Fatty acid composition is dominated by stearic (28-56%) and oleic (34-61%) acids. Shea butters from West African provenances contained in general higher levels of triterpene alcohols and stearic acid than those from East African provenances. Both stearic acid and total triterpene alcohol contents were significantly correlated to the latitude and elevation of the source population, indicating that higher levels of these compounds are found at higher ambient temperatures. (+info)
Bio-guided isolation of antioxidant compounds from Chrysophyllum perpulchrum, a plant used in the Ivory Coast pharmacopeia.
Triacylglycerol and triterpene ester composition of shea nuts from seven African countries.
The compositions of the triacylglycerol (TAG) and triterpene ester (TE) fractions of the kernel fats (n-hexane extracts; shea butter) of the shea tree (Vitellaria paradoxa; Sapotaceae) were determined for 36 samples from seven sub-Saharan countries, i.e., Cote d' Ivoire, Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroun, Chad, Sudan, and Uganda. The principal TAGs are stearic-oleic-stearic (SOS; mean 31.2%), SOO (27.7%), and OOO (10.8%). The TE fractions contents are in the range of 0.5-6.5%, and contain alpha-amyrin cinnamate (1c; mean 29.3%) as the predominant TE followed by butyrospermol cinnamate (4c; 14.8%), alpha-amyrin acetate (1a; 14.1%), lupeol cinnamate (3c; 9.0%), beta-amyrin cinnamate (2c; 7.6%), lupeol acetate (3a; 7.2%), butyrospermol acetate (4a; 5.8%), and beta-amyrin acetate (2a; 4.9%). Shea kernel fats from West African provenances contained, in general, higher levels of high-melting TAGs such as SOS, and higher amount of TEs than those from East African provenances. No striking regional difference in the composition of the TE fractions was observed. (+info)
Booming markets for Moroccan argan oil appear to benefit some rural households while threatening the endemic argan forest.