Neurotensin is a proinflammatory neuropeptide in colonic inflammation.
The neuropeptide neurotensin mediates several intestinal functions, including chloride secretion, motility, and cellular growth. However, whether this peptide participates in intestinal inflammation is not known. Toxin A, an enterotoxin from Clostridium difficile, mediates pseudomembranous colitis in humans. In animal models, toxin A causes an acute inflammatory response characterized by activation of sensory neurons and intestinal nerves and immune cells of the lamina propria. Here we show that neurotensin and its receptor are elevated in the rat colonic mucosa following toxin A administration. Pretreatment of rats with the neurotensin receptor antagonist SR-48, 692 inhibits toxin A-induced changes in colonic secretion, mucosal permeability, and histologic damage. Exposure of colonic explants to toxin A or neurotensin causes mast cell degranulation, which is inhibited by SR-48,692. Because substance P was previously shown to mediate mast cell activation, we examined whether substance P is involved in neurotensin-induced mast cell degranulation. Our results show that neurotensin-induced mast cell degranulation in colonic explants is inhibited by the substance P (neurokinin-1) receptor antagonist CP-96,345, indicating that colonic mast activation in response to neurotensin involves release of substance P. We conclude that neurotensin plays a key role in the pathogenesis of C. difficile-induced colonic inflammation and mast cell activation. (+info)
Vagotomy inhibits the jejunal fluid secretion activated by luminal ileal Escherichia coli STa in the rat in vivo.
BACKGROUND: Escherichia coli heat stable enterotoxin (STa) is a major cause of secretory diarrhoea in humans. AIMS: To assess the effects of instilling STa into the ileum on remote fluid secretion in the jejunum and colon in rats in vivo by a gravimetric technique. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ileal STa (55 ng/ml) stimulated fluid secretion in both ileal and jejunal loops but not in the colon. The fluid secretion induced by ileal STa was inhibited by L-NAME (Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, 40 mg/kg intraperitoneally) but not by D-NAME (Nomega-nitro-D-arginine methyl ester). Ileal carbachol (183 mg/ml) instilled into the lumen stimulated ileal secretion but not jejunal secretion, and was unaffected by L-NAME. Capsaicin (10 microM), instilled luminally with STa in the ileum, blocked both the ileal and jejunal fluid secretion. Acute bilateral vagotomy prevented luminal ileal STa from inducing jejunal fluid secretion but not from activating ileal fluid secretion. CONCLUSION: Ileal E coli STa stimulates remote secretion in the rat jejunum but not in the colon, probably by a nitrinergic, vagal reflex mediated by C fibres. This neural pathway will amplify the action of the toxin in its generation of secretory diarrhoea. (+info)
The nature of the local immune system of the bovine small intestine.
In an examination of the immunoglobulins of the small intestine of calve, IgG1 was the major immunoglobulin in the secretions, and IgA was present in smaller amounts. Immunohistochemical studies showed few IgA containing plasma cells but many cells that stained with anti-IgG antiserum. Histological evidence of transport of IgG1 across the crypt epithelial cell was found. Studies with 125I-labelled IgG1 indicated that a significant proportion of IgG1 in the intestine originated in serum. (+info)
Troglitazone inhibits bicarbonate secretion in rat and human duodenum.
Troglitazone is a new, orally effective antidiabetic agent that decreases plasma glucose in obese patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Unfortunately, troglitazone also has a propensity to cause edema. This study was designed to determine how troglitazone affects intestinal ion transport and water absorption. Short circuit current (I(sc)) was measured in rat and human duodenal mucosa in Ussing chambers. Five minutes later, the serosal addition of troglitazone caused I(sc) to decrease gradually, and after 50 min, I(sc) reached the peak of decrease. EC(50) values and maximum response to I(sc) in rat and human mucosa were 8.4 and 8.7 microM and 8.56 +/- 1.0 and 8.00 +/- 2.0 microA/cm(2), respectively. In an HCO(3)(-)/CO(2)-free system, the decrease in I(sc) caused by troglitazone was 1.31 +/- 0.83 microA/cm(2). When 10 mM acetazolamide was preadministered, the small decrease in I(sc) evoked by troglitazone (20 microM) was 4.56 +/- 0.22 microA/cm(2), whereas the preadministration of 100 microM amiloride and 100 nM tetrodotoxin did not influence the decrease in I(sc) evoked by troglitazone. The serosal preadministration of 100 nM vasoactive intestinal peptide potently enhanced the decrease in I(sc) evoked by 20 microM troglitazone (21.1 +/- 1.63 microA/cm(2)). The cyclic AMP contents of rat duodenal mucosa incubated with and without troglitazone (20 microM) for 50 min were 3.2 +/- 0.25 and 5. 8 +/- 0.46 pmol/mg protein, respectively (P <.01). These results indicate that the ionic basis for the decrease in I(sc) that is induced by troglitazone may be inhibition of electrogenic bicarbonate secretion. The alteration of intestinal ion transport by troglitazone could cause edema. (+info)
Generation of polymeric immunoglobulin receptor-deficient mouse with marked reduction of secretory IgA.
We generated mouse lacking exon 2 of polymeric Ig receptor (pIgR) gene by a gene-targeting strategy (pIgR-deficient mouse; pIgR-/- mouse) to define the physiological role of pIgR in the transcytosis of Igs. pIgR-/- mice were born at the expected ratio from a cross between pIgR+/- mice, indicating that disruption of the pIgR gene in mice is not lethal. pIgR and secretory component proteins were not detected in pIgR-/- mice by Western blot analysis. Moreover, immunohistochemical analysis showed that pIgR protein is not expressed in jejunal and colonic epithelial cells of pIgR-/- mice, whereas IgA+ cells are present in the intestinal mucosa of pIgR-/- mice as well as wild-type littermates. Disruption of the pIgR gene caused a remarkable increase in serum IgA concentration and a slight increment of serum IgG and IgE levels, leaving serum IgM level unaltered. In contrast, IgA was much reduced but not negligible in the bile, feces, and intestinal contents of pIgR-/- mice. Additionally, IgA with a molecular mass of 280 kDa preferentially accumulated in the serum of pIgR-/- mice, suggesting that transepithelial transport of dIgA is severely blocked in pIgR-/- mice. These results demonstrate that dIgA is mainly transported by pIgR on the epithelial cells of intestine and hepatocytes, but a small quantity of IgA may be secreted via other pathways. (+info)
Involvement of an organic anion transporter (canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter/multidrug resistance-associated protein 2) in gastrointestinal secretion of glutathione conjugates in rats.
We investigated the role of cMOAT/MRP2 (canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter/multidrug resistance-associated protein 2) in the intestinal secretion of organic anions by comparing the behavior in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and Eisai hyperbilirubinemic rat (EHBR) whose cMOAT/MRP2 is hereditarily defective. After i.v. administration of 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (30 micromol/kg), the biliary and intestinal excretion of its glutathione conjugate 2, 4-dinitrophenyl-S-glutathione (DNP-SG), a substrate for cMOAT/MRP2, was significantly reduced in EHBR compared with SD rats. This result also was confirmed by Ussing chamber studies; DNP-SG showed 1.5-fold greater serosal-to-mucosal flux compared with the mucosal-to-serosal flux in SD rats, whereas a similar flux was observed in both directions in EHBR. In addition, metabolic inhibitors reduced the preferential serosal-to-mucosal flux of DNP-SG in SD rats. In everted sac studies, intestinal secretion clearance, defined as the efflux rate of DNP-SG into the mucosal side divided by the area under the curve on the serosal side, was significantly lower in the jejunum of EHBR than that in SD rats. Northern blot analyses demonstrated the highest mRNA level of cMOAT/MRP2 in the jejunum, which is in good agreement with the results of the everted sac studies. These results suggest that cMOAT/MRP2 is involved in the secretion of organic anions in the small intestine. (+info)
Effects of L-glutamine on acetylsalicylic acid-induced gastric lesions in normal and cirrhotic rats.
Cirrhosis of the liver in rats was induced by the administration of carbon tetrachloride (0.1 ml/100 g of body weight, s.c.) biweekly for 13 weeks. In the pylorus ligation preparation, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) 100 mg/kg p.o. induced much more serious gastric damage in CC14-induced cirrhotic rats as compared with rats with a normal liver. L-glutamine 750 mg/kg p.o. prevented the ASA-induced gastric lesions in both normal and cirrhotic rats, even though the degree of the inhibition was weaker in cirrhotic rats. Gastric analysis indicated that L-glutamine 750 mg/kg p.o. markedly inhibited the gastric ionic changes (acid back diffusion) in response to ASA in both cirrhotic and normal rats. (+info)
Effect of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) antagonism on rat jejunal fluid and electrolyte secretion induced by cholera and Escherichia coli enterotoxins.
BACKGROUND: The enteric nervous system is important in the pathophysiology of intestinal fluid secretion induced by cholera toxin (CT), Escherichia coli heat labile (LT), and heat stable (STa) toxins. The neurotransmitters involved are not fully elucidated. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), a potent intestinal secretagogue present in the enteric nervous system, is increased after exposure of the cat intestine to CT. Whether VIP is involved in the pathogenesis of cholera and other toxins in not known. AIM: To study in vivo the effect of VIP antagonism on jejunal fluid secretion induced by CT, LT, and STa. METHODS: CT, LT (25 microg), or 0.9% NaCl was instilled in an isolated 25 cm segment of rat jejunum, and the VIP antagonist (VIPa) [4Cl-D-Phe(6), Leu(17)]-VIP (0.2 or 2 microg/kg/min) or 0.9% NaCl was given intravenously. Two hours later, single pass in vivo jejunal perfusion was performed to assess fluid movement. In STa experiments, intravenous VIPa or 0.9% NaCl was given and 30 minutes later the jejunal segment was perfused with a solution containing STa 200 microg/l. RESULTS: VIPa had no effect on basal intestinal fluid absorption. CT induced net fluid secretion (median -68 microl/min/g dry intestinal weight (interquartile range -80 to -56)) which was dose dependently reversed by VIPa (6.2 (-16 to 34) and 29 (17 to 42); p<0.01). Similarly, LT induced secretion (-63 (-73 to -30)) was attenuated by VIPa (0.2 microg/kg/min) (-15 (-24 to -1); p<0.01) and totally reversed to normal levels by VIPa (2 microg/kg/min) (37 (28-56); p<0. 01 compared with LT and not significant compared with normal controls). STa induced secretion (-17 (-19 to -2)) was also reversed by VIPa (12 (9-23) and 14 (0-26); p<0.01). CONCLUSION: VIP plays an important role in CT, LT, and STa induced intestinal secretion and may be the final putative neurotransmitter in the pathophysiology of these toxins. (+info)