Attitudes towards reproduction in Latin America. Teachings from the use of modern reproductive technologies.
The use of modern reproductive technology, such as in-vitro fertilization and its related procedures, has opened new areas of legal, religious and public concern. Thirty years ago, the development of effective methods to control procreation generated a debate on whether couples had the right to enjoy sex in the absence of its procreative effect. Today, assisted reproductive technology (ART) allows couples to have their own children in the absence of a direct intermediation of sex. The Catholic Church has reacted against both contraception and ART, and specific instructions have been directed to the public, the medical profession and legislators. In a recent survey, 88.4% of the population in Latin America claims to be Catholic; therefore, bioethical considerations and legal implications concerning intervention in reproduction are strongly permeated by the moral teachings of Catholicism. In 1996, 83 medical doctors and scientists, participating in the Latin American Network of Assisted Reproduction, produced a consensus document on ethical aspects and legal implications of ART. The document contains minimal ethical guidelines that Latin American professionals have decided to adhere to, even in the absence of legal regulations. This article examines how the medical profession, legislators and the public react to religious influence when confronted by difficult bioethical decisions such as the right to procreate. (+info)
Methods of semen collection not based on masturbation or surgical sperm retrieval.
Although masturbation is the standard method for the collection of a sperm sample, both for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, other approaches have been described and assessed. Production of semen using specially designed condoms has been shown to result in samples with better laboratory characteristics than samples obtained after masturbation or coitus interruptus. However, this has not resulted in a general acceptance and use of this approach, except in special circumstances where masturbation is impossible or unacceptable. Direct retrieval of spermatozoa from morning urine is another method which has been used to study spermache in boys, but not to treat infertility. Sperm production techniques such as vibro- and electrostimulation are dealt with elsewhere, as are surgical retrieval techniques used in azoospermia. (+info)
Extent of regretted sexual intercourse among young teenagers in Scotland: a cross sectional survey.(3/34)
Contraceptive practice and unplanned pregnancy among single university students.
The sexual behaviour and contraceptive practices of a random sample of unmarried university students were compared with those of a group attending the student health service with an unplanned pregnancy. The immediate cause of most pregnancies in this series was incorrect use of a rhythm method. Irregularity of the menstrual cycle may have been a contributing factor in many cases. Psychological factors influencing the desire for pregnancy, while present, were not major contributing causes in many pregnancies. (+info)
Knowledge and practice of contraception in United Arab Emirates women.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the knowledge and practice of contraception among United Arab Emirates (UAE) women. METHOD: Four hundred and fifty UAE women at risk of pregnancy were randomly selected from the community and primary health care centres and interviewed about knowledge and practice of contraception using a structured questionnaire. RESULTS: Four hundred women (89%) gave consent to participate in the study. One hundred and sixty-six participants (41.5%) were using contraception. All used natural methods backed with other methods. There were significant associations between using contraception and each of age, high level of education and low family income (p < 0.0001 for the three variables). Religious beliefs and low expectation of success of birth control were the reasons given for non-use. Eighty-five percent of subjects did not accept sterilisation without medical indications, nor using contraception before the first pregnancy. Of the women, 42.5% believed that contraceptive methods should not be used after the age of 40, and 78% were unaware that they could be used for treatment of gynaecological diseases. Disturbed bleeding patterns occurred in 48.7% of users, and these were most bothered by the inability to pray (100%) and to have sexual intercourse (97.5%). CONCLUSION: Contraception is not commonly used by UAE women because of sociocultural traditions, religious beliefs and poor knowledge. (+info)
Male circumcision, religion, and infectious diseases: an ecologic analysis of 118 developing countries.
BACKGROUND: Both religious practices and male circumcision (MC) have been associated with HIV and other sexually-transmitted infectious diseases. Most studies have been limited in size and have not adequately controlled for religion, so these relationships remain unclear. METHODS: We evaluated relationships between MC prevalence, Muslim and Christian religion, and 7 infectious diseases using country-specific data among 118 developing countries. We used multivariate linear regression to describe associations between MC and cervical cancer incidence, and between MC and HIV prevalence among countries with primarily sexual HIV transmission. RESULTS: Fifty-three, 14, and 51 developing countries had a high (>80%), intermediate (20-80%), and low (<20%) MC prevalence, respectively. In univariate analyses, MC was associated with lower HIV prevalence and lower cervical cancer incidence, but not with HSV-2, syphilis, nor, as expected, with Hepatitis C, tuberculosis, or malaria. In multivariate analysis after stratifying the countries by religious groups, each categorical increase of MC prevalence was associated with a 3.65/100,000 women (95% CI 0.54-6.76, p = 0.02) decrease in annual cervical cancer incidence, and a 1.84-fold (95% CI 1.36-2.48, p < 0.001) decrease in the adult HIV prevalence among sub-Saharan African countries. In separate multivariate analyses among non-sub-Saharan African countries controlling for religion, higher MC prevalence was associated with a 8.94-fold (95% CI 4.30-18.60) decrease in the adult HIV prevalence among countries with primarily heterosexual HIV transmission, but not, as expected, among countries with primarily homosexual or injection drug use HIV transmission (p = 0.35). CONCLUSION: Male circumcision was significantly associated with lower cervical cancer incidence and lower HIV prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa, independent of Muslim and Christian religion. As predicted, male circumcision was also strongly associated with lower HIV prevalence among countries with primarily heterosexual HIV transmission, but not among countries with primarily homosexual or injection drug use HIV transmission. These findings strengthen the reported biological link between MC and some sexually transmitted infectious diseases, including HIV and cervical cancer. (+info)
Sexuality, birth control and childbirth in orthodox Jewish tradition.
This paper examines some of the traditional texts that deal with sexuality, birth control and childbirth in the orthodox Jewish tradition and presents the rules governing these areas. For instance, a married woman should avoid being alone with a male physician unless other people are in earshot and have access to the room. A husband and wife must separate during the woman's menses and for the first 7 days afterward. Contraception is permitted if childbearing would endanger a woman's life or health. Termination of pregnancy is also permitted to preserve a woman's health, including her mental health. During childbirth the health of the mother is primary and supercedes all other rules or laws, including those of Sabbath observance. In general, orthodox Jewish women try to live as much as possible within the framework of Halacha. These customs are examined as examples of the need for sensitivity to cultural norms that affect the behaviour of different ethnic groups. (+info)
"The priest obviously doesn't know that I'm gay": the religious and spiritual journeys of Latino gay men.