Mandatory reporting of intimate partner violence to police: views of physicians in California.
OBJECTIVES: This study examined physicians' perspectives on mandatory reporting of intimate partner violence to police. METHODS: We surveyed a stratified random sample of California physicians practicing emergency, family, and internal medicine and obstetrics/gynecology. RESULTS: An estimated 59% of California primary care and emergency physicians (n = 508, 71% response rate) reported that they might not comply with the reporting law if a patient objects. Primary care physicians reported lower compliance. Most physicians agreed that the legislation has potential risks, raises ethical concerns, and may provide benefits. CONCLUSIONS: Physicians' stated noncompliance and perceived negative consequences raise the possibility that California's mandatory reporting law is problematic and ineffective. (+info)
Effect of closed circuit television on urban violence.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of city and town centre closed circuit television (CCTV) surveillance on violence in terms of accident and emergency (A&E) department and police assault data. METHODS: A&E department and local police assault data in three centres in Wales (Cardiff, Swansea, and Rhyl) two years before and two years after the installation of CCTV were studied. British Crime Survey and police crime statistics were used as control data. RESULTS: A&E records of 24,442 assault patients and 3228 violent offences recorded by the police were studied. Data from two A&E departments (Swansea (+3%) and Rhyl (+45%)) showed increases in recorded assaults after CCTV installation but a decrease (12%) in the largest centre, Cardiff. There was an overall reduction in town/city centre violence from the A&E department perspective of 1% in the two years after CCTV installation. In contrast, police data demonstrated changes in the opposite direction (-44%, -24%, and +20% respectively) contributing to an overall decrease of 9%. British Crime Survey and police statistics for England and Wales demonstrated no overall change and a 16% increase respectively. CONCLUSIONS: City centre CCTV installation had no obvious influence on levels of assaults recorded in A&E departments. There was a negative relationship between police and A&E recording in all three centres. A&E departments are important and unique sources of information about community violence. (+info)
Insulin resistance syndrome predicts the risk of coronary heart disease and stroke in healthy middle-aged men: the 22-year follow-up results of the Helsinki Policemen Study.
The interpretation of conventional multivariate analyses concerning the relation of insulin to the risk of atherosclerotic disease is complex because of correlations of insulin with other risk factors. Therefore, we applied factor analysis to study the clustering of risk factors in the baseline data of the Helsinki Policemen Study (970 healthy men aged 34 to 64 years) and investigated whether these clusterings predict coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke risk. Areas under the glucose and insulin response curves (AUC glucose and AUC insulin) were used to reflect glucose and insulin levels during oral glucose tolerance tests. During the 22-year follow-up, 164 men had a CHD event, and 70 men had a stroke. Factor analysis of 10 risk factor variables produced 3 underlying factors: insulin resistance factor (comprising body mass index, subscapular skinfold, AUC insulin, AUC glucose, maximal O(2) uptake, mean blood pressure, and triglycerides), lipid factor (cholesterol and triglycerides), and lifestyle factor (physical activity and smoking). In multivariate Cox models, the age-adjusted hazard ratio for insulin resistance factor during the 22-year follow-up was 1.28 (95% CI 1.10 to 1.50) with regard to CHD risk and 1.64 (95% CI 1.29 to 2.08) with regard to stroke risk. Lipid factor predicted the risk of CHD but not that of stroke, and lifestyle factor predicted a reduced CHD risk. Factor analysis including only 6 risk factor variables proposed to be central components of insulin resistance syndrome (body mass index, subscapular skinfold, AUC insulin, AUC glucose, mean blood pressure, and triglycerides) produced only a single insulin resistance factor that predicted the risk of CHD and stroke independently of other risk factors. (+info)
Use of medical care, police assistance, and restraining orders by women reporting intimate partner violence--Massachusetts, 1996-1997.
Approximately 1.5 million women in the United States are physically or sexually assaulted by an intimate partner (IP) each year (1). The Woman Abuse Tracking in Clinics and Hospitals (WATCH) Project at the Massachusetts Department of Public Health analyzed data from the 1996 and 1997 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) in Massachusetts to 1) estimate the percentage of women aged 18-59 years experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) who used medical care, police assistance, and restraining orders during the preceding 5 years, 2) determine where women experiencing IPV went for medical care, and 3) examine the overlap in use of these three services. This report describes the results of these analyses, which indicate that a higher percentage of women aged 18-59 years use police assistance rather than obtain a restraining order or seek medical care. (+info)
Plasma insulin and all-cause, cardiovascular, and noncardiovascular mortality: the 22-year follow-up results of the Helsinki Policemen Study.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of plasma insulin with all-cause, cardiovascular, and noncardiovascular mortality. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We studied 22-year mortality data from the Helsinki Policemen Study The study population comprised 970 men, 34-64 years of age, who were free of coronary heart disease, other cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Area under the insulin response curve (AUC insulin) during an oral glucose tolerance test was used to reflect plasma insulin levels. RESULTS: During the follow-up period, 276 men died: 130 from cardiovascular and 146 from noncardiovascular causes. The hazard ratio (HR) for hyperinsulinemia (highest AUC insulin quintile vs. combined lower quintiles) with regard to all-cause mortality adjusting for age, was 1.94 (95% CI 1.20-3.13) during the first 10 years of the follow-up period and 1.51 (1.15-1.97) during the entire 22 years; adjusting for other risk factors, the HR was 1.88 (1.08-3.30) and 1.37 (1.00-1.87) during 10 and 22 years, respectively The corresponding HRs for cardiovascular mortality during 10 and 22 years were 2.67 (1.35-5.29) and 1.73 (1.19-2.53), respectively, for age-adjusted and 2.30 (1.03-5.12) and 1.39 (0.90-2.15), respectively, for multiple-adjusted HRs. A U-shaped association was observed between insulin and noncardiovascular mortality, multiple-adjusted HRs for lowest and highest versus middle AUC insulin quintiles were 1.85 (1.20-2.86) and 1.43 (0.91-2.24), respectively CONCLUSIONS: Hyperinsulinemia was associated with increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in Helsinki policemen independent of other risk factors, although these associations weakened with the lengthening of the follow-up period. The association of insulin with noncardiovascular mortality was U-shaped. (+info)
Serological evidence of schistosomiasis in the Malaysian police field force.
A total of 1131 Police Field Force personnel were screened serologically for schistosomiasis in Malaysia. A total of 150 (13.3%) were tested positive or borderline. Stool samples from 75 of these cases were however all negative for schistosome eggs. This survey suggests that Police Field Force personnel may be agents for propagating the schistosome life cycle in Malaysia. (+info)
Police as contributors to Healthy Communities: Aiken, South Carolina.
In Aiken, South Carolina, community policing has led to numerous innovative programs that have contributed to a healthy community. The MOMS and COPS (Managing Our Maternity System with Community Oriented Policing System) program has played a significant part in the county's 50% decrease in infant mortality since 1989 and contributed to Aiken's designation as an All-America City in 1997. Other programs include a mentoring program for at-risk teen girls; instant crime reporting with donated cellular phones; seminars for seniors to alert them to scams and common crimes; demolition of unsafe homes; free installation of smoke detectors; a child ID program; and parental education on child brain development. (+info)
Occupational transmission of human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus after a punch.
Although the simultaneous transmission of either human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus or HIV and hepatitis B virus from a single source has already been described, this is the first case of transmission to occur after a blow with the fist. (+info)