Army families and the general practitioner.
The military component of a rural general practice is described with details of increased workload and morbidity for conditions associated with emotional stress. (+info)
Bacterial pneumonia as a suprainfection in young adults with measles.
The aim of this study was to report the clinical and laboratory characteristics of bacterial pneumonia related to measles infection, and also to assess any correlation between severity and time of onset. Four hundred and twenty-four previously healthy young males (age 22+/-2.1 yrs) were hospitalized with typical symptoms and signs of measles. One hundred and twelve (26%) developed bacterial pneumonia on admission (n=41), during their hospital stay (n=20) or days after their discharge (n=51): groups A, B and C, respectively. Single lobar consolidation was the most common finding, accounting for 89% of cases. Pleural effusion was uncommon and associated in half of the cases with empyema. A microbiological diagnosis was made in 81 cases. Streptococcus pneumoniae (65 cases) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (9 cases) were the most commonly identified organisms. Patients from group C had significantly higher values of white blood cell count and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and lower values of arterial oxygen tension (14+/-0.8 x 10(9) x L(-1), 88+/-4 mm and 6.3+/-0.4 kPa (47+/-3 mmHg), respectively) than the other two groups. There were no deaths during the hospitalization period. The mean duration of hospital stay was 13+/-2.4 days and was longer in the presence of K. pneumoniae infection (19+/-1.6 days). Six patients from group C were admitted to the intensive care unit. In conclusion, these data suggest that bacterial pneumonia associated with measles is not unusual in hospitalized adults, and it seems to be more severe when it occurs days after the onset of rash. (+info)
Strain variation in adenovirus serotypes 4 and 7a causing acute respiratory disease.
In order to determine the suitability of vaccine strains established in the 1960s for a new vaccine, a comprehensive study of strain variation of adenovirus serotype 4 (AV 4) and AV 7 was undertaken. A 1,500-bp region of the hexon gene containing the AV neutralization epitopes from prototype, vaccine, and community-acquired strains and from wild-type strains from military personnel that cause acute respiratory disease (ARD) was sequenced and analyzed. The whole hexon gene from prototype strains, vaccine strains, and selected isolates was sequenced. AV 7 and AV 7a were found to have distinct genotypes, and all vaccine and wild-type strains recovered from 1963 to 1997 had the AV 7a genotype. There was no significant strain variation in the neutralization epitopes of the AV 7a genotype over a 42-year period. The evolution of AV 4 was more complex, with continuous genetic drift punctuated by replacement with a new strain. The current strain of AV 4, which has been in circulation since 1995, is significantly different from the AV 4 prototype and the vaccine strains. Genetic differences were confirmed to be antigenic differences by neutralization tests, which define the new strain as an AV 4 variant. A type-specific PCR for AV 4, AV 7/7a, and AV 21 was developed, and this PCR facilitated the rapid identification of isolates from outbreaks of ARD. (+info)
Insulin sensitivity is related to physical fitness and exercise blood pressure to structural vascular properties in young men.
Insulin resistance is related to physical inactivity, which is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and death. Moreover, blood pressure responses during the first 6 minutes of an exercise test (600 kilo/pound/meter [kpm] per min) are more predictive for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality than blood pressure at rest, which could reflect that exercise blood pressure correlates more closely to peripheral structural vascular changes than casual blood pressure. We have recently shown a correlation between insulin resistance and minimal forearm vascular resistance (MFVR) in young men recruited from the highest blood pressure percentiles during a military draft session. In the present study, we tested the hypotheses that insulin sensitivity relates to physical fitness and that blood pressure responses during an exercise test relate to peripheral structural vascular changes in these men; we also tested whether these findings were interrelated. We assessed insulin sensitivity and physical fitness in 27 young men randomly selected from the cohort having a blood pressure of 140/90 mm Hg or higher during the compulsory military draft session in Oslo. Insulin sensitivity correlated with physical fitness (r=0.58, P=0.002). Systolic blood pressure after 6 minutes of exercise (600 kpm/min) correlated with MFVR (r=0.46, P=0.015). MFVR and physical fitness independently explained 60% of the variation in insulin sensitivity, and MFVR independently explained 19% of the variation of systolic blood pressure after 6 minutes of exercise. In conclusion, insulin sensitivity is related to physical fitness and exercise blood pressure to structural vascular properties in these young men. (+info)
Expanded safety and immunogenicity of a bivalent, oral, attenuated cholera vaccine, CVD 103-HgR plus CVD 111, in United States military personnel stationed in Panama.
To provide optimum protection against classical and El Tor biotypes of Vibrio cholerae O1, a single-dose, oral cholera vaccine was developed by combining two live, attenuated vaccine strains, CVD 103-HgR (classical, Inaba) and CVD 111 (El Tor, Ogawa). The vaccines were formulated in a double-chamber sachet; one chamber contained lyophilized bacteria, and the other contained buffer. A total of 170 partially-immune American soldiers stationed in Panama received one of the following five formulations: (a) CVD 103-HgR at 10(8) CFU plus CVD 111 at 10(7) CFU, (b) CVD 103-HgR at 10(8) CFU plus CVD 111 at 10(6) CFU, (c) CVD 103-HgR alone at 10(8) CFU, (d) CVD 111 alone at 10(7) CFU, or (e) inactivated Escherichia coli placebo. Among those who received CVD 111 at the high or low dose either alone or in combination with CVD 103-HgR, 8 of 103 had diarrhea, defined as three or more liquid stools. None of the 32 volunteers who received CVD 103-HgR alone or the 35 placebo recipients had diarrhea. CVD 111 was detected in the stools of 46% of the 103 volunteers who received it. About 65% of all persons who received CVD 103-HgR either alone or in combination had a fourfold rise in Inaba vibriocidal titers. The postvaccination geometric mean titers were comparable among groups, ranging from 450 to 550. Ogawa vibriocidal titers were about twice as high in persons who received CVD 111 as in those who received CVD 103-HgR alone (600 versus 300). The addition of CVD 111 improved the overall seroconversion rate and doubled the serum Ogawa vibriocidal titers, suggesting that the combination of an El Tor and a classical cholera strain is desirable. While CVD 111 was previously found to be well tolerated in semiimmune Peruvians, the adverse effects observed in this study indicate that this strain requires further attenuation before it can be safely used in nonimmune populations. (+info)
Prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes and abnormalities of carbohydrate metabolism in a U.S. Army population.
OBJECTIVE: The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) reported that 4.3-6.3% of adult Americans have undiagnosed diabetes. 15.6% have impaired glucose tolerance, and 10.1% have impaired fasting glucose. By design, NHANES III excluded people in the U.S. military. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance, and impaired fasting glucose among U.S. Army soldiers. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A 2-h, 75-g oral glucose tolerance test was performed on a prospective, consecutive sample of 625 asymptomatic soldiers presenting to a U.S. Army medical clinic for physical examinations. Age of subjects was 32 +/- 9 years (mean +/- SD), and 81.0% of subjects were male. BMI was 26.2 +/- 3.7 kg/m2. Race/ethnicity categories included Caucasian (54.4%), African-American (24.4%), Hispanic (17.4%), and other (3.7%). A family history of diabetes was reported by 25.4% of the subjects, and the number of exercise sessions per week was 4.0 +/- 1.5. RESULTS: The prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes was 3 of 625 (0.5%) (95% CI, 0.1-1.4): impaired glucose tolerance, 11 of 598 (1.8%) (0.9-3.3); and impaired fasting glucose 6 of 585 (1.0%) (0.4-2.2). CONCLUSIONS: In this low-diabetes risk U.S. Army population, the prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance, and impaired fasting glucose were 0.5, 1.8, and 1.0%, respectively. The prevalence rates found in this study are approximately one-tenth of those found in NHANES III. (+info)
Factors associated with pharyngeal carriage of Neisseria meningitidis among Israel Defense Force personnel at the end of their compulsory service.
In this 1 year cross-sectional study of personnel being discharged from compulsory military service, an available database of health-related information was used to examine the association of meningococcal carriage with socio-demographic factors. A representative, systematic sample of 1632 personnel was interviewed and had throat cultures taken. The overall meningococcal carriage rate was 16%. Serogroups B and Y accounted for 76% and 13% of the isolates respectively. In univariate analysis, carriage was associated with male gender (P < 0.0001), < 12 years school education (P = 0.002), smoking (P = 0.014), and service at a 'closed' base, reflecting greater interpersonal contact (P < 0.0001). In multivariate analysis, only service on a closed base and male gender retained significance. School education of < 12 years remained significant for females only. Variables not associated with carriage included number of siblings, intensity of smoking, and use of the contraceptive pill. In this setting, meningococcal carriage was associated with the type of base on which soldiers served; and smoking was not an independent risk factor for carriage. (+info)
Serum dioxin and cancer in veterans of Operation Ranch Hand.
We studied cancer prevalence and exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (dioxin) in veterans of Operation Ranch Hand, the Air Force unit responsible for the aerial spraying of herbicides in Vietnam from 1962 to 1971. A comparison group of Air Force veterans who served in Southeast Asia during the same period and who were not involved with spraying herbicides was included. Comparison veterans were matched to Ranch Hand veterans on age, race, and military occupation. We measured dioxin in 1987 or 1992, extrapolated the result to the time of service in Southeast Asia, and assigned each Ranch Hand veteran to Background, Low, or High exposure categories. This study had low power to detect an effect for specific or rare cancers. The risk of cancer at sites other than the skin within 20 years of service was increased in the Low (odds ratio (OR) = 3.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5-8.0) and High (OR = 2.7, 95% CI 0.9-8.0) categories, but the pattern was inconsistent with another study, suggesting that the excess risk may not have been caused by dioxin exposure. Overall, we found no consistent evidence of a dose-response gradient and no significant increase in cancer risk in the High dioxin exposure category, the subgroup of greatest a priori interest. (+info)