The amino acid sequence of Neurospora NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase. Peptic and chymotryptic peptides and the complete sequence.
Peptic and chymotryptic peptides were isolated form the NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase of Neurospora crassa and substantially sequenced. Out of 452 residues in the polypeptide chain, 265 were recovered in the peptic and 427 in the chymotryptic peptides. Together with the tryptic peptides [Wootton, J. C., Taylor, J. G., Jackson, A. A., Chambers, G. K. & Fincham, J. R. S. (1975) Biochem. J. 149, 749-755], these establish the complete sequence of the chain, including the acid and amide assignments, except for seven places where overlaps are inadequate. These remaining alignments are deduced from information on the CNBr fragments obtained in another laboratory [Blumenthal, K. M., Moon, K. & Smith, E. L. (1975), J. Biol. Chem. 250, 3644-3654]. Further information has been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50054 (17 pages) with the British Library (Lending Division), Boston Spa, Wetherby, W. Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies may be obtained under the terms given in Biochem. J. (1975) 145, 5. (+info)
The role of the flap residue, threonine 77, in the activation and catalytic activity of pepsin A.
Flexible loops, often referred to as flaps, have been shown to play a role in catalytic mechanisms of different enzymes. Flaps at the active site regions have been observed in the crystal structures of aspartic proteinases and their residues implicated in the catalytic processes. This research investigated the role of the flap residue, threonine 77, in the activation of pepsinogen and the catalytic mechanism of pepsin. Three mutants, T77S, T77V and T77G, were constructed. Differences in amino acid polarity and hydrogen bonding potential were shown to have an influence on the activation and catalytic processes. T77S activated at the same rate and had similar catalytic parameters as the wild-type pepsin. The activation rates of T77V and T77G were slower and their catalytic efficiencies lower than the wild-type. The results demonstrated that the threonine 77 polar side chain played a role in a proteolysis. The contribution of the side chain to zymogen activation was associated with the proteolytic cleavage of the prosegment. It was postulated that the hydroxyl group at position 77 provided an essential hydrogen bond that contributed to proper substrate alignment and, indirectly, to a catalytically favorable geometry of the transition state. (+info)
Isolation and identification of three bactericidal domains in the bovine alpha-lactalbumin molecule.
Proteolytic digestion of alpha-lactalbumin by pepsin, trypsin and chymotrypsin yielded three polypeptide fragments with bactericidal properties. Two fragments were obtained from the tryptic digestion. One was a pentapeptide with the sequence EQLTK (residues 1-5) and the other, GYGGVSLPEWVCTTF ALCSEK (residues (17-31)S-S(109-114)), was composed of two polypeptide chains held together by a disulfide bridge. Fragmentation of alpha-lactalbumin by chymotrypsin yielded CKDDQNPH ISCDKF (residues (61-68)S-S(75-80)), also a polypeptide composed of two polypeptide chains held together by a disulfide bridge. The three polypeptides were synthesized and found to exert antimicrobial activities. The polypeptides were mostly active against Gram-positive bacteria. Gram-negative bacteria were only poorly susceptible to the bactericidal action of the polypeptides. GYGGVSLPEWVCTTF ALCSEK was most, EQLTK least bactericidal. Replacement of leucine (23) with isoleucine, having a similar chemical structure but higher hydrophobicity, in the sequence GYGGVSLPEWVCTTF ALCSEK significantly reduced the bactericidal capacity of the polypeptide. Digestion of alpha-lactalbumin by pepsin yielded several polypeptide fragments without antibacterial activity. alpha-Lactalbumin in contrast to its polypeptide fragments was not bactericidal against all the bacterial strains tested. Our results suggest a possible antimicrobial function of alpha-lactalbumin after its partial digestion by endopeptidases. (+info)
Recombinant human type II collagens with low and high levels of hydroxylysine and its glycosylated forms show marked differences in fibrillogenesis in vitro.
Type II collagen is the main structural component of hyaline cartilages where it forms networks of thin fibrils that differ in morphology from the much thicker fibrils of type I collagen. We studied here in vitro the formation of fibrils of pepsin-treated recombinant human type II collagen produced in insect cells. Two kinds of type II collagen preparation were used: low hydroxylysine collagen having 2.0 hydroxylysine residues/1,000 amino acids, including 1.3 glycosylated hydroxylysines; and high hydroxylysine collagen having 19 hydroxylysines/1,000 amino acids, including 8.9 glycosylated hydroxylysines. A marked difference in fibril formation was found between these two kinds of collagen preparation, in that the maximal turbidity of the former was reached within 5 min under the standard assay conditions, whereas the absorbance of the latter increased until about 600 min. The critical concentration with the latter was about 10-fold, and the absorbance/microgram collagen incorporated into the fibrils was about one-sixth. The morphology of the fibrils was also different, in that the high hydroxylysine collagen formed thin fibrils with essentially no interfibril interaction or aggregation, whereas the low hydroxylysine collagen formed thick fibrils on a background of thin ones. The data thus indicate that regulation of the extents of lysine hydroxylation and hydroxylysine glycosylation may play a major role in the regulation of collagen fibril formation and the morphology of the fibrils. (+info)
Monkey pepsinogens and pepsins. III. Carbohydrate moiety of Japanese monkey pepsinogens and the amino acid sequence around the site of its attachment to protein.
Purified Japanese monkey pepsinogens I and II contain carbohydrate as a part of the enzyme molecule. By gel filtration on Sephadex G-100, chromatography on DE-32 cellulose, and polyacrylamide disc gel electrophoresis, the carbohydrate moiety could not be separated from the enzyme protein, and the content did not decrease on repeated chromatography. Glycopeptides were obtained by successive digestion of pepsinogens with thermolysin and aminopeptidases and isolated by chromatography on Sephadex G-25 and G-50. Identification and determination of carbohydrate components was performed by paper and gas-liquid chromatographies. The presence of 4 glucosamines, 6 galactoses, 6--8 mannoses, and 8--11 fucoses per molecule of the glycopeptide of both pepsinogens was observed, of which the high content of fucose is especially unique. The molecular weight of the carbohydrate chains should be around 4,000--5,000. The amino acid sequence of a major glycopeptide was deduced to be Ile-Gly-Ile-Gly-Thr-Pro-Gln-Ala-Asn, in which the asparagine residue is the site of attachment of the carbohydrate chain. (+info)
Larynx vs. esophagus as reflexogenic sites for acid-induced bronchoconstriction in dogs.
Bronchoconstriction in asthmatic patients is frequently associated with gastroesophageal reflux. However, it is still unclear whether bronchoconstriction originates from the esophagus or from aspiration of the refluxate into the larynx and larger airway. We compared the effect of repeated esophageal and laryngeal instillations of HCl-pepsin (pH 1.0) on tracheal smooth muscle activity in eight anesthetized and artificially ventilated dogs. Saline was used as control. We used pressure in the cuff of an endotracheal tube (Pcuff) as a direct index of smooth muscle activity at the level of the larger airways controlled by vagal efferents. The Pcuff values of the first 60 s after instillations were averaged, and the difference from the baseline values was evaluated. Changes in Pcuff were significantly greater with laryngeal than with esophageal instillations (P = 0.0166). HCl-pepsin instillation into the larynx evoked greater responses than did saline (P = 0.00543), whereas no differences were detected with esophageal instillations. Repeated laryngeal exposure enhanced the responsiveness significantly (P < 0. 001). Our data indicate that the larynx is more important than the esophagus as a reflexogenic site for the elicitation of reflex bronchoconstriction in response to acidic solutions. (+info)
Vagal esophageal receptors in anesthetized dogs: mechanical and chemical responsiveness.
This study was performed to evaluate the characteristics of esophageal receptors in anesthetized and artificially ventilated dogs. The electrical activity of the esophageal afferents was recorded from the peripheral cut end of the cervical vagus nerve. A cuffed catheter was inserted into the esophagus at the level of the third tracheal ring and was used to establish the esophageal location of the endings. Most of the receptors were localized in the intrathoracic portion of the esophagus. The majority of the receptors studied (36 of 43) showed a slow adaptation to a maintained stretch of the esophageal wall. Vagal cooling blocked receptor activity at temperatures ranging from 3.5 to 25 degrees C. Twenty-eight of 43 receptors, including 4 rapidly adapting endings (RAR), were challenged with saline, HCl + pepsin (HCl-P; pH 1) and distilled water (8 ml, 37 degrees C). HCl-P solutions specifically stimulated only three receptors; saline or water did not. Five slowly adapting receptors and two RARs were also challenged with topically applied capsaicin; only one RAR was stimulated. To ascertain a possible effect of smooth muscle contraction, 17 receptors were tested with intravenous injections of ACh and/or asphyxia; only 4 were stimulated. These characteristics do not support an important reflexogenic role of the esophagus in response to chemical stimuli. (+info)
Contribution of a prosegment lysine residue to the function and structure of porcine pepsinogen A and its active form pepsin A.
A conserved lysine residue, Lys36p, on the prosegment of pepsinogen was replaced with a positively charged arginine (K36pR), a negatively charged glutamic acid (K36pE), and a neutral side chain methionine (K36pM). K36pM and K36pE mutants were extremely unstable and degraded rapidly, especially K36pE, which was inactivated during purification. This instability was confirmed by microcalorimetry where the denaturing temperatures for K36pM and K36pE were 6 degrees C and 10 degrees C lower than the wild-type, respectively. As a function of pH, K36pM and K36pR were activated over a broader range of pH as compared with wild-type. The mutant pepsinogens were activated faster than wild-type with K36pM being activated approximately 10 times faster. The activated pepsins from the various mutant pepsinogens showed lower kinetic efficiency than wild-type enzyme. Catalytic rate constants were reduced by half. The results suggested Lys36p is important for the correct folding of the active-centre residues. The molecular modeling calculation suggested that the position of Asp215 was substantially altered. In conclusion, the above results would suggest that Lys36p was important not only for stability of the prosegment and pepsinogen, but also for the correct alignment of the active-centre residues. (+info)