Modeling breathing-zone concentrations of airborne contaminants generated during compressed air spray painting.
This paper presents a mathematical model to predict breathing-zone concentrations of airborne contaminants generated during compressed air spray painting in cross-flow ventilated booths. The model focuses on characterizing the generation and transport of overspray mist. It extends previous work on conventional spray guns to include exposures generated by HVLP guns. Dimensional analysis and scale model wind-tunnel studies are employed using non-volatile oils, instead of paint, to produce empirical equations for estimating exposure to total mass. Results indicate that a dimensionless breathing zone concentration is a nonlinear function of the ratio of momentum flux of air from the spray gun to the momentum flux of air passing through the projected area of the worker's body. The orientation of the spraying operation within the booth is also very significant. The exposure model requires an estimate of the contaminant generation rate, which is approximated by a simple impactor model. The results represent an initial step in the construction of more realistic models capable of predicting exposure as a mathematical function of the governing parameters. (+info)
Occupational asthma and contact dermatitis in a spray painter after introduction of an aziridine cross-linker.
A 23-year-old spray painter developed contact dermatitis and respiratory difficulty characterized by small airways obstruction shortly after the polyfunctional aziridine cross-linker CX-100 began to be used in his workplace as a paint activator. The symptoms resolved after he was removed from the workplace and was treated with inhaled and topical steroids. Painters may have an increased risk of asthma due to exposure to a variety of agents, such as isocyanates, alkyd resins, and chromates. This case illustrates the importance of using appropriate work practices and personal protective equipment to minimize exposure. Occupational asthma is diagnosed by a history of work-related symptoms and exposure to known causative agents. The diagnosis is confirmed by serial pulmonary function testing or inhalational challenge testing. The risk of asthma attributable to occupational exposures is probably underappreciated due to underreporting and to inappropriate use of narrow definitions of exposure in epidemiologic studies of attributable risk. (+info)
Use of a field portable X-Ray fluorescence analyzer to determine the concentration of lead and other metals in soil samples.
Field portable methods are often needed in risk characterization, assessment and management to rapidly determine metal concentrations in environmental samples. Examples are for determining: "hot spots" of soil contamination, whether dust wipe lead levels meet housing occupancy standards, and worker respiratory protection levels. For over 30 years portable X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) analyzers have been available for the in situ, non-destructive, measurement of lead in paint. Recent advances made possible their use for analysis of airborne dust filter samples, soil, and dust wipes. Research at the University of Cincinnati with the NITON 700 Series XRF instrument (40 millicurie Cadmium 109 source, L X-Rays) demonstrated its proficiency on air sample filters (NIOSH Method No. 7702, "Lead by Field Portable XRF; limit of detection 6 microg per sample; working range 17-1,500 microg/m3 air). Research with lead dust wipe samples from housing has also shown promising results. This XRF instrument was used in 1997 in Poland on copper smelter area soil samples with the cooperation of the Wroclaw Medical Academy and the Foundation for the Children from the Copper Basin (Legnica). Geometric mean soil lead concentrations were 200 ppm with the portable XRF, 201 ppm with laboratory-based XRF (Kevex) and 190 ppm using atomic absorption (AA). Correlations of field portable XRF and AA results were excellent for samples sieved to less than 125 micrometers with R-squared values of 0.997, 0.957, and 0.976 for lead, copper and zinc respectively. Similarly, correlations were excellent for soil sieved to less than 250 micrometers, where R-squared values were 0. 924, 0.973, and 0.937 for lead, copper and zinc, respectively. The field portable XRF instrument appears to be useful for the determination of soil pollution by these metals in industrial regions. (+info)
Carbamazepine, hepatotoxicity, organic solvents, and paints.
Hepatotoxicity secondary to carbamazepine is a serious condition which can be fatal. However, other concomitant medications or environmental factors may be the offending agents. In this case report, hepatotoxicity secondary to organic solvents and paints is described. (+info)
Cohort mortality study of 57,000 painters and other union members: a 15 year update.
OBJECTIVES: To study mortality patterns in the largest existing cohort of painters. METHODS: 15 years of follow up were added to a study of 42,170 painters and 14,316 non-painters based on union records. There were 23,458 deaths, compared with 5313 in the earlier follow up. RESULTS: Comparisons with the United States population showed significantly increased rates in painters for lung cancer (standardised mortality ratio (SMR) 1.23, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.17 to 1.29), bladder cancer (SMR 1.23, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.43), liver cancer (SMR 1.25, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.50), and stomach cancer (SMR 1.39, 95% CI 1.20 to 1.59). However, in direct comparisons with non-painters only the excesses for lung cancer (SRR 1.23, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.35, increasing to 1.32, 95% CI 16 to 1.93 with 20 years latency) and bladder cancer (SRR 1.77, 95% CI 1.13 to 2.77) were confirmed. Some confounding by smoking may affect these two outcomes, particularly with external referents. Cirrhosis of the liver was increased for both painters and non-painters (SMRs 1.21, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.35, and 1.26, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.51, respectively), possibly indicating high alcohol consumption. Suicide (SMR 1.21, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.38) and homicide (SMR 1.36, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.75) were increased for painters but not for non-painters; neuropsychiatric diseases have been associated with painters in earlier studies. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest modest occupational risks for lung and bladder cancer; these results are consistent with existing publications. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified painting as an occupation definitely associated with cancer. (+info)
Evaluation of exposure to ethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetates and their possible haematological effects on shipyard painters.
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate exposure to mixed solvents containing ethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate (EGEEA) in shipyard painters, to determine if EGEEA is toxic to the bone marrow. METHODS: An industrial hygiene survey was performed to identify exposure to EGEEA of two groups of shipyard painters, a low exposure group (n = 30) and a high exposure group (n = 27). Urinary ethoxyacetic acid and methyl hippuric acid as well as haemoglobin, packed cell volume, red cell indices, total and differential white blood cell counts (WBCs), and platelet count for the shipyard painters and the control subjects were measured. RESULTS: The mean (range) exposure concentration (ppm) to EGEEA in the high and low exposure groups were 3.03 (not detectable to 18.27), 1.76 (not detectable to 8.12), respectively. The concentrations of methyl hippuric acid and ethoxyacetic acid in the high exposure group were significantly higher than those in the control group. The mean WBCs in the high exposure group were significantly lower than in the control group, and a significant proportion, six (11%) of the 57 painters, were leucopenic; none of the controls were affected. CONCLUSION: The high rate of possible haematological effects among shipyard painters and a hygienic evaluation of their working environment in the present study suggests that EGEEA might be toxic to bone marrow. (+info)
Health effects of solvent exposure among dockyard painters: mortality and neuropsychological symptoms.
OBJECTIVES: To study mortality and prevalence of neuropsychological symptoms among a cohort of painters known to have been heavily exposed to organic solvents. METHODS: A mortality study of 1292 male painters who had worked in a dockyard in Scotland for > or = 1 year between 1950 and 1992 comprised a nested cross sectional study of 953 surviving painters from the cohort and 953 male non-painters randomly selected from the local population and a case-control study of those with high symptom scores. Mortality, symptoms, and risks associated with painting, adjusting for age, education, smoking, alcohol, and personality were measured. RESULTS: The proportional mortality ratio for all cancers was not increased significantly (110 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 84 to 143), except for a possible excess of deaths from ischaemic heart disease (132, 105 to 164). Standardised mortality ratios were not significantly increased. Among the 260 surviving painters and 539 community controls who responded to the questionnaire there was a significant excess of symptoms among painters; adjusted relative risk (RR) increased significantly with increasing symptom score. These RRs suggested an exposure-response relation; for a high score (12-22) for all symptoms RR was 2.27 (1.20 to 4.30) for 1-4 years of exposure, 2.42 (1.18 to 4.95) for 5-9 years, 2.89 (1.42 to 5.88) for 10-14 years, and 3.41 (1.82 to 6.36) for 15-41 years, compared with controls. In multivariate analyses, painting exposure, and aging were associated with high symptom scores and there was again an increased risk relative to time worked as a painter. CONCLUSION: This study supports the hypothesis that heavy and prolonged exposure to paint solvents leads to neuropsychological ill health. (+info)
Neuropsychological symptoms in Chinese male and female painters: an epidemiological study in dockyard workers.
OBJECTIVES: To study the prevalences of neuropsychological symptoms in male and female dockyard painters in China and to compare them with those in British dockyard painters. METHODS: All 116 painters were identified, active and retired, who had been employed in two Chinese dockyards for at least 1 year together with a matched random sample of 263 dockyard non-painters. Neuropsychological and personality questionnaires that we had used previously in a study of United Kingdom dockyard painters were used, translated into Chinese. Neuropsychological symptoms in painters and controls were compared, adjusting for age, educational level, smoking, alcohol intake, and personality. RESULTS: The response rate was 94% for painters and 97% for controls. Highly significant excesses of symptoms were found in painters, suggestive of neuropsychological dysfunction. Both male and female painters showed higher relative risks than were found in similar tradespeople in the United Kingdom. The relative risk increased with increasing score of both neurological and psychological symptoms. Relative risk of having a high symptom score, compared with controls and adjusted for confounders, was 6.61 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 2.36 to 18.50) for 2-15 years exposure, 14.88 (5.74 to 38.56) for 16-22 years and 9.42 (3.97 to 22.36) for > or = 22 years. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that neuropsychological symptoms are associated with heavy exposure to painting work in China, and that the phenomenon is likely to be found worldwide wherever there is such exposure to solvent based paints. The high response rate in this study answers a possible criticism of the earlier United Kingdom study. (+info)