Induction of low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) transcription by oncostatin M is mediated by the extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathway and the repeat 3 element of the LDLR promoter.
Oncostatin M (OM) activates the transcription of the human low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) in HepG2 cells through a sterol-independent mechanism. Our previous studies showed that mutations within the repeat 3 sequence of the LDLR promoter significantly decreased OM activity on LDLR promoter luciferase reporter constructs that contain the sterol responsive element-1 (repeat 2) and Sp1 binding sites (repeats 1 and 3). In this study, we investigated the signal transduction pathways that are involved in OM-induced LDLR transcription. In HepG2 cells, OM induced a rapid increase in LDLR mRNA expression, with increases detected at 30 min and maximal induction at 1 h. This OM effect was not blocked by protein synthesis inhibitors, inhibitors of p38 kinase, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, or c-Jun N-terminal kinase, but OM activity was completely abolished by pretreating cells with inhibitors of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase (mitogen/ERK kinase (MEK)). To investigate whether the repeat 3 sequence of the LDLR promoter is the OM-responsive element that converts ERK activation at the promoter level, three luciferase reporters, pLDLR-TATA containing only the TATA-like elements of the promoter, pLDLR-R3 containing repeat 3 and the TATA-like elements, and pLDLR-234 containing repeats 1, 2, 3 and the TATA-like elements were constructed and transiently transfected into HepG2 cells. OM had no effect on the basal promoter construct pLDLR-TATA; however, including a single copy of repeat 3 sequence in the TATA vector (pLDLR-R3) resulted in a full OM response. The activity of OM on pLDLR-R3 was identical to that of pLDLR-234. Importantly, the ability of OM to increase luciferase activities in both pLDLR-R3- and pLDLR-234-transfected cells was blocked in a dose-dependent manner by inhibition of MEK. These results demonstrate that the mitogen-activated protein kinase MEK/ERK cascade is the essential signaling pathway by which OM activates LDLR gene transcription and provide the first evidence that the repeat 3 element is a new downstream target of ERK activation. (+info)
Leukemia inhibitory factor and oncostatin M stimulate collagenase-3 expression in osteoblasts.
Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and oncostatin M (OSM) have multiple effects on skeletal remodeling. Although these cytokines modestly regulate collagen synthesis in osteoblasts, their effects on collagenase expression and collagen degradation are not known. We tested whether LIF and OSM regulate the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) in osteoblast-enriched cells isolated from fetal rat calvariae. LIF and OSM increased collagenase-3 (MMP-13) mRNA and immunoreactive protein levels in a time- and dose-dependent manner. LIF and OSM enhanced the rate of transcription of the collagenase gene and stabilized collagenase mRNA in transcriptionally arrested cells. LIF and OSM failed to regulate the expression of gelatinase A (MMP-2) and B (MMP-9). LIF and OSM modestly stimulated the expression of TIMP-1 but did not alter the expression of TIMP-2 and -3. In conclusion, LIF and OSM stimulate collagenase-3 and TIMP-1 expression in osteoblasts, and these effects may be involved in mediating the bone remodeling actions of these cytokines. (+info)
Fetal liver development requires a paracrine action of oncostatin M through the gp130 signal transducer.
Fetal liver, the major site of hematopoiesis during embryonic development, acquires additional various metabolic functions near birth. Although liver development has been characterized biologically as consisting of several distinct steps, the molecular events accompanying this process are just beginning to be characterized. In this study, we have established a novel culture system of fetal murine hepatocytes and investigated factors required for development of hepatocytes. We found that oncostatin M (OSM), an interleukin-6 family cytokine, in combination with glucocorticoid, induced maturation of hepatocytes as evidenced by morphological changes that closely resemble more differentiated hepatocytes, expression of hepatic differentiation markers and intracellular glycogen accumulation. Consistent with these in vitro observations, livers from mice deficient for gp130, an OSM receptor subunit, display defects in maturation of hepatocytes. Interestingly, OSM is expressed in CD45(+) hematopoietic cells in the developing liver, whereas the OSM receptor is expressed predominantly in hepatocytes. These results suggest a paracrine mechanism of hepatogenesis; blood cells, transiently expanding in the fetal liver, produce OSM to promote development of hepatocytes in vivo. (+info)
Oncostatin M: development of a pleiotropic cytokine.
Oncostatin M (OM) is a member of the interleukin-6 (IL-6) cytokine subfamily. The binding of OM to its receptor initiates signal transduction through JAK-signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) pathways and activates transcription activators through mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases. Results of in vitro assays documented that OM modulates cytokine expression and alters the production of proteases that down-regulate inflammation. Administration of OM to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged mice lowered serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) levels and decreased the lethal effects of LPS administration. OM also reduced inflammation in animal models of human disease, including inflammatory bowel disease, antibody-induced arthritis, and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Preclinical safety studies have been conducted in the mouse and monkey. Mice were administered OM (subcutaneously) at 72, 360, or 1,560 micrograms/kg/day in a 2-wk toxicity study. Decreased body weights occurred at 1,560 micrograms/kg. Drug-related changes at 360 and 1,560 micrograms/kg consisted of dermal irritation at the injection site, leukopenia, and thymic lymphoid depletion; all changes were reversible following a 2-wk recovery period. In a 2-wk subcutaneous study in monkeys, OM was administered at 1, 5, 15, 45, or 150 micrograms/kg/day. At all doses there was reversible, transient inappetence and dermal irritation at the injection site. Drug-related changes at 5, 15, 45, and 150 micrograms/kg consisted of reversible elevations in both serum amyloid A and IL-6, and reversible thymic lymphoid depletion. Transient increases in body temperature occurred at 15, 45, and 150 micrograms/kg. The observed spectrum of immunomodulatory effects suggests that OM may have therapeutic utility in treating chronic inflammatory diseases. (+info)
Reprogramming of TIMP-1 and TIMP-3 expression profiles in brain microvascular endothelial cells and astrocytes in response to proinflammatory cytokines.
Cytokine-dependent regulation of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) expression provides an important mechanism for controlling the activity of matrix metalloproteinases. We present data indicating that during inflammatory processes TIMP-1 and TIMP-3 may be involved in the proteolytic remodeling of subendothelial basement membrane of the brain microvascular system, a key step during leukocyte migration into the brain perivascular tissue. In brain endothelial cells the expression of TIMP-1 is dramatically up-regulated by major proinflammatory cytokines, with the combination of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) exhibiting the strongest synergistic stimulation. Simultaneously, IL-1beta/TNF alpha almost completely blocks TIMP-3 expression. Both synergistic effects are dose-dependent within the concentration range 0.05-5 ng/ml of both cytokines and correlate with the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, an endothelial cell activation marker. Down-regulation of TIMP-3 expression is also detected in astrocytes treated with TNF alpha or IFN-gamma whereas oncostatin M as well as TNF alpha up-regulate TIMP-1 mRNA level. We propose that the cytokine-modified balance between TIMP-1 and TIMP-3 expression provides a potential mechanism involved in the regulation of microvascular basement membrane proteolysis. (+info)
Regulation of inflammatory responses by oncostatin M.
Oncostatin M (OM) is a pleiotropic cytokine produced late in the activation cycle of T cells and macrophages. In vitro it shares properties with related proteins of the IL-6 family of cytokines; however, its in vivo properties and physiological function are as yet ill defined. We show that administration of OM inhibited bacterial LPS-induced production of TNF-alpha and lethality in a dose-dependent manner. Consistent with these findings, OM potently suppressed inflammation and tissue destruction in murine models of rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. T cell function and Ab production were not impaired by OM treatment. Taken together these data indicate the activities of this cytokine in vivo are antiinflammatory without concordant immunosuppression. (+info)
Inflammatory cytokines and HIV-1-associated neurodegeneration: oncostatin-M produced by mononuclear cells from HIV-1-infected individuals induces apoptosis of primary neurons.
Neurologic abnormalities are common in HIV-1-infected patients and often represent the dominant clinical manifestation of pediatric AIDS. The neurological dysfunction has been directly related to CNS invasion by HIV-1 that is principally, if not exclusively, supported by blood-derived monocytes/macrophages and lymphocytes. By using primary long term cultures of human fetal sensory neurons as well as sympathetic precursors-like neuronal cells, we determined that blood-derived mononuclear cells from HIV-1-infected individuals spontaneously release soluble mediators that can potently inhibit the growth and survival of developing neurons as well as the viability of postmitotic neuronal cells by inducing apoptotic cell death. Analysis of the cytokines produced by lymphomonocytic cells, HIV-1 infected or activated, indicated that oncostatin M (oncM) is a major mediator of these effects. Since low TGF-beta1 concentrations were capable of enhancing oncM-mediated neuronal alterations, our data indicate that by acting in concert with other cytokines, oncM may induce neuronal demise in both the developing and the mature brain. Thus, this cytokine may contribute to the setting of the neuronal cell damage observed in HIV-1-infected individuals. (+info)
Stat6 activation is essential for interleukin-4 induction of P-selectin transcription in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.
Chronic upregulation of P-selectin expression on the surface of the endothelium has been observed in and likely contributes to a number of chronic inflammatory diseases, including atherosclerosis. Agonists of P-selectin expression fall into 2 categories: those that induce a very rapid, transient increase, lasting only hours, and those that induce prolonged upregulation lasting days. It is the latter group, which includes interleukin-4 (IL-4), that is likely to be a mediator of chronic P-selectin upregulation. The increase in P-selectin expression induced by IL-4 results from increased transcriptional activation of the P-selectin gene. The aim of this study was to deduce the postreceptor signaling pathway(s) giving rise to the prolonged increase in P-selectin expression induced by IL-4. We demonstrate the existence of 2 functional signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (Stat6) binding sites on the P-selectin promoter and further demonstrate, by functional analysis of the P-selectin promoter, that binding of activated Stat6 to at least 1 site is essential for IL-4-induction of P-selectin transcription. Site 1 (nucleotide[nt] -142) bound Stat6 with a higher affinity than did site 2 (nt -229), and this difference was reflected functionally as constructs in which only site 1 was functional showed full IL-4 inducibility, whereas constructs in which only site 2 was functional showed only 40% of maximal IL-4 inducibility. IL-4 also induced prolonged activation of Stat6, which was contingent on the continuous presence of IL-4. The sustained activation of Stat6 induced by IL-4 is likely to be a key factor leading to the prolonged activation of the P-selectin promoter, thereby resulting in prolonged P-selectin upregulation. (+info)