The physical characteristics of neodymium iron boron magnets for tooth extrusion.
Impaction and non-eruption of teeth is a common problem encountered in orthodontics and many techniques have been proposed for the management of this condition. It has been advocated that a system utilizing magnets would supply a continuous, directionally sensitive, extrusive force, through closed mucosa and thus provide not only a physiological sound basis for successful treatment, but also reduce the need for patient compliance and appliance adjustment. This ex vivo investigation examined in detail the physical characteristics of neodymium iron boron magnets employed in attraction in order to assess their usefulness in the clinical situation. Attractive force and magnetic flux density measurements were recorded for nine sets of magnet pairs with differing morphologies. The effect of spatial relationship on force was assessed by varying vertical, transverse and horizontal positions of the magnets relative to each other, and by altering the pole face angles. The data obtained suggest that magnets with larger pole face areas and longer magnetic axes provide the best performance with respect to clinical usefulness. It was possible to formulate a specific relationship between force and flux density for each magnet pair. This relationship can be used in the clinical management of unerupted teeth to predict the force between the magnets by measuring the magnetic flux density present at mucosal level. The results indicate that magnetic systems may, indeed, have a place in the treatment of unerupted teeth. (+info)
The durability of parylene coatings on neodymium-iron-boron magnets.
A parylene coating is frequently used to prevent corrosion of neodymium-iron-boron magnets when they are used intra-orally. This in vitro study was designed to test the durability of parylene coating in a simulated oral environment. Single and double parylene-coated magnets were subjected to grinding and crushing forces in an industrial ball mill. The results demonstrate that abrasion and wear was visible around the edges after 1 hour of testing, with a breach of the coating noted under high magnification scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The conclusion of the study is that parylene coating is unlikely to withstand intra-oral forces. The shape of the magnets, the manufacturing process involved in their production, and the thickness of the parylene coating are important factors to consider with respect to the durability of magnets used in the mouth. (+info)
The Nd-YAG laser is useful in prevention of dental caries during orthodontic treatment.
Plaque control during the course of orthodontic treatment is not an easy task, and dental caries are not an unlikely complication. We examined the possibility of controlling dental caries with Nd-YAG laser irradiation in orthodontic patients. As a preliminary experiment, we used the Nd-YAG laser to irradiate an extracted tooth and then left it to soak in lactic acid. The decay of the tooth was evaluated with a scanning electron microscope (SEM); tooth decay was inhibited by the action of the laser. Twenty patients undergoing orthodontic treatment for early decalcification of the teeth (white spot lesions) were selected, and photographs were taken of their oral cavities. White spot lesions on the four incisors and two canines of the maxilla were traced on tracing paper, and their areas were calculated by computer. Ten of the patients received laser treatment and acidulated phosphate fluoride solution (APF); the other ten acted as the control group. Between 11 and 12 months later, we photographed the oral cavity as we had previously; the white spot lesions were again traced and their areas calculated. The changes in the areas of the white spots of the laser-irradiated and control groups showed the following increases: laser-irradiated group, 1.41 times; controls, 2.87 times. The difference was statistically significant. These results demonstrate that Nd-YAG laser irradiation with application of APF acts as an effective method of caries control during orthodontic treatment. (+info)
Interaction of lanthanide ions with bovine factor X and their use in the affinity chromatography of the venom coagulant protein of Vipera russelli.
The substitution of trivalent lanthanide ions for Ca(II) in the Ca(II)-DEPENDENT ACTIVATION OF BOVINE Factor X by the coagulant protein of Russell's viper venom was studied at pH 6.8. Factor X contains two high affinity metal binding sites which bind Gd(III), Sm(III), and Yb(III) with a Kd of about 4 X 10-7 M and four to six lower affinity metal binding sites which bind Gd(III), Sm(III) with a Kd of about 1.5 X 10-5M. In comparison, 1 mol of Factor X binds 2 mol of Ca(II) with a Kd of 3 X 10-4M and weakly binds many additional Ca(II) ions. No binding of Gd(III) to the venom protein was observed. Dy(III), Yb(III), Tb(III), Gd(III), Eu(III), La(III), AND Nd(III) cannot substitute for Ca(II) in the Ca(II)-dependent activation of Factor X by the venom protein at pH 6.8. Kinetic data consistent with the models of competitive inhibition of Ca(II) by Nd(III) yielded a Ki of 1 to 4 X 10-6M. The substitution of lanthanide ions for Ca(II) to promote protein complex formation of Factor X-metal-venom protein without the activation of Factor X facilitated the purification of the coagulant protein from crude venom by affinity chromatography. Using a column containing Factor X covalently bound to agarose which was equilibrated in 10 mM Nd(III), Tb(III), Gd(III), or La(III), the coagulant protein was purified 10-fold in 40% yield from crude venom and migrated as a single band on gel electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate. These data suggest that lanthanide ions complete with Ca(II) for the metal binding sites of Factor X and facilitate the formation of a nonproductive ternary complex of venom protein-Factor X-metal. Tb(III) fluorescence, with emission maxima at 490 and 545 nm, is enhanced 10,000-fold in the presence of Factor X. The study of the participation of an energy donor intrinsic to Factor X in energy transfer to Tb(III) may be useful in the characterization of the metal binding sites of Factor X. (+info)
Determination of nucleic acids using calcein-neodymium complex as a fluorescence probe.
A novel fluorometric method has been developed for rapid determination of DNA and RNA with calcein-neodymium complex as a fluorescence probe. The method is based on the fluorescence enhancement of calcein-Nd(III) complex in the presence of DNA or RNA, with maximum excitation and emission wavelength at 489 nm and 514 nm, respectively. Under optimal conditions, the calibration graphs are linear over the range 0.5 - 3.0 microg/ml for both DNA and yeast RNA, 0.4 - 2.0 microg/ml for fish sperm DNA (FS DNA) and 0 - 3.0 microg/ml for calf thymus DNA (CT DNA). The corresponding detection limits are 15.1 ng/ml for DNA, 21.2 ng/ml for yeast RNA, 10.5 ng/ml for FS DNA and 8.9 ng/ml for CT DNA. The interaction mechanism for the binding of calcein-Nd(III) complex to DNA is also studied. The results of absorption spectra, fluorescence polarization measurements and thermal denaturation experiments, suggested that the interaction between calcein-Nd(III) complex and DNA is an electrostatic interaction. (+info)
The corrosion behavior of Nd2Fe14B and SmCo5 magnets.
Rare earth magnets have corrosive problems associated with their use in prostheses in various fields including orthodontics. The purpose of this study is to investigate the corrosion behavior of an Nd2Fe14B magnet and a SmCo5 magnet in an oral environment. The relations among the attractive force changes, the released elements, the weight changes and the anodic polarization measurements of the magnets were examined under immersions in 1% NaCl, 1% lactic acid, 0.05% HCl, 0.1% Na2S and Greenwood's artificial saliva at 37 degrees C for forty-two days. The results showed that the rare earth magnets underwent high corrosive assaults and large attractive force reductions by the immersions in 1% lactic acid and 0.05% HCl. The problem of corrosion of the magnets could be overcome by sealing them within laser-welded stainless steel capsules. (+info)
Nd:YAG laser ablation of enamel for orthodontic use: tensile bond strength and surface modification.
To test the feasibility of Nd:YAG laser ablation for orthodontic use, bovine enamels were ablated at 2.5 and 3.5 W/pulse conditions. Orthodontic brackets were attached on the ablated enamel surface using a self-curing resin. For comparison, a 37% phosphoric acid solution was used to etch the enamel surface. The strength to detach the brackets was estimated for both surface treatments. Modifications of the enamel surfaces were also compared using a scanning electron microscope for both treatments. The tensile bond strengths from the laser-ablated enamels were significantly lower than that from the phosphoric acid-etched enamels. The higher laser power treatment gave a significantly higher bond strength average than with the lower laser power. The laser-ablated surfaces showed the formation of craters. The formation involved melting and solidification of enamel. Each crater had numerous micropores. Microscopically, the ablated surface was smooth, while much of the acid-etched surface contained numerous microspaces. (+info)
Nd:YAG laser ablation and acid resistance of enamel.
The acid resistance of Nd:YAG laser-ablated enamel surfaces was studied by evaluating crystal structure, mineral distribution, and fluorescence radiance and image in the present study. For comparison, 37% phosphoric acid etching was performed. The formation of beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) was confirmed in the laser-ablated surface. The Ca/P ratio increased after ablation due to mineral re-distribution. In contrast, the Ca/P ratio decreased after acid etching due to mineral loss. The laser-ablated enamels showed a smaller increase of fluorescence radiances and less clear laser confocal scanning microscope images than those observed in the acid-etched enamels. The former suggests a minimized mineral loss. The Nd:YAG laser irradiation will enhance the acid resistance and retard the carious progression in enamel. (+info)