Molecular cloning and mRNA expression of geraniol-inducible genes in cultured shoot primordia of Matricaria chamomilla.
Genes for two geraniol-responsive factors, designated McEREBP1 and McWRKY1, from cultured shoot primordia of Matricaria chamomilla were cloned. The deduced amino acid sequences of these genes were highly similar to those of the family of ethylene-responsive element binding proteins and elicitor-induced DNA-binding proteins containing a WRKY domain, respectively. The levels of McEREBP1 and McWRKY1 mRNAs were maximum when measured 1 h after treatment of the cultured cells with geraniol. (+info)
Matricaria chamomilla extract inhibits both development of morphine dependence and expression of abstinence syndrome in rats.
The effect of Matricaria chamomilla (M. chamomilla) on the development of morphine dependence and expression of abstinence was investigated in rats. The frequencies of withdrawal behavioral signs (paw tremor, rearing, teeth chattering, body shakes, ptosis, diarrhea, and urination) and weight loss induced by naloxone challenge were demonstrated in morphine-dependent rats receiving M. chamomilla extract or saline. The withdrawal behavioral manifestations and weight loss were inhibited significantly by chronic co-administration of M. chamomilla extract with morphine. Administration of a single dose of M. chamomilla before the naloxone challenge in morphine-dependent animals abolished the withdrawal behavioral manifestations. The dramatic increase of plasma cAMP induced by naloxone-precipitated abstinence was prevented by chronic co-administration of M. chamomilla extract with morphine. These results suggest that M. chamomilla extract inhibits the development of morphine dependence and expression of abstinence syndrome. (+info)
The complex technology on products of German chamomile.
The German chamomile is an old herbal medicine, which is widely used in medical practice. The water and ethanol extracts of matricaria flowers are mainly used for their anti-inflammatory, antiseptic and spasmolytic properties. It is possible to prepare tea of pulverized matricaria flowers with 0.2 mm sized particles packed in tea bags. The investigation of anatomical diagnostical identification, qualitative and quantitative indices showed that matricaria top got after gathering flowers can be recommend as a herb for medical use. The thin-layer chromatographic research showed that matricaria top contains 9 flavonoids (2 more than flowers) and it's essential oil--10 components (one more than flowers). The technological study of practical use of matricaria top approved the possibility to prepare the fluid extract of matricaria top for external use. The results of investigations showed the possibility of complex use of Matricaria recutita cultivated in Latvia. (+info)
Host-associated populations in the lettuce root aphid, Pemphigus bursarius (L.).
Pemphigus bursarius is a host-alternating aphid in which annual rounds of sexual reproduction on its primary host, Populus nigra, are interspersed with parthenogenesis on a range of secondary hosts. Evidence was sought for the existence of genetically distinct populations, associated with different secondary hosts, in P. bursarius. Microsatellite markers revealed that genetically distinct populations were present on three different secondary host species. Microsatellites were also used, in conjunction with mitochondrial DNA sequence variation, to investigate the relationships between aphids on Populus, following sexual reproduction, and those on the secondary hosts. Evidence was found for a distinct, cyclically parthenogenetic population that exploited Lactuca sativa as its secondary host. In contrast, populations associated with Matricaria inodora appeared to be largely composed of obligate parthenogens or may even have been another species of Pemphigus. Populations on Lapsana communis appeared to be a mixture of cyclical and obligate parthenogens and were more genetically heterogeneous than those on other secondary hosts, possibly due to founder effects. Experiments to measure the performance of P. bursarius clones on different secondary hosts were inconclusive, failing to demonstrate either the presence or absence of adaptations to secondary hosts. (+info)
Functional diversity of plant-pollinator interaction webs enhances the persistence of plant communities.
Pollination is exclusively or mainly animal mediated for 70% to 90% of angiosperm species. Thus, pollinators provide an essential ecosystem service to humankind. However, the impact of human-induced biodiversity loss on the functioning of plant-pollinator interactions has not been tested experimentally. To understand how plant communities respond to diversity changes in their pollinating fauna, we manipulated the functional diversity of both plants and pollinators under natural conditions. Increasing the functional diversity of both plants and pollinators led to the recruitment of more diverse plant communities. After two years the plant communities pollinated by the most functionally diverse pollinator assemblage contained about 50% more plant species than did plant communities pollinated by less-diverse pollinator assemblages. Moreover, the positive effect of functional diversity was explained by a complementarity between functional groups of pollinators and plants. Thus, the functional diversity of pollination networks may be critical to ecosystem sustainability. (+info)
Some Lithuanian ethnobotanical taxa: a linguistic view on thorn apple and related plants.
BACKGROUND: The perception and use of plants correspond with common plant names. The study of plant names may give insight into historical and recent use of plants. METHODS: Plant names in dictionaries and folklore have been evaluated. A etymological analysis of the names is provided. Onomasiological and semasiological aspects have been considered. Therefore, species named with names related to each other have been selected. RESULTS: Plant names containing the stem dag- or deg- may belong to either of two categories: incenses or thorny plants. Plants named in durn- have been in use as psychopharmaca. The name rymo points not to Rome but to the use of plants as anodyne or psychopharmaca. (+info)
Warfarin interaction with Matricaria chamomilla.
No cases have been reported of Matricaria chamomilla potentiating the effects of warfarin. Nevertheless there is a theoretical risk for potentiation, since the herb is thought to be a coumarin constituent. We describe the case of a 70-year-old woman who, while being treated with warfarin, was admitted to hospital with multiple internal hemorrhages after having used chamomile products (tea and body lotion) to soothe upper respiratory tract symptoms. Patient education on the potential risk of taking chamomile products while being treated with warfarin is necessary to avoid such occurrences. (+info)
Matricaria chamomilla CH12 decreases handling stress in Nelore calves.
Matricaria chamomilla CH12 is a phytotherapeutic or homeopathic product, which has been used to reduce stress. Here, we examined its effect on preventing handling stress in bovines. Sixty Nelore calves were randomly distributed into two equal groups. One group was administered Matricaria chamomilla CH12 in diet and the other the 'control' was not. Animals in both groups were maintained unstressed for 30 days to adjust to the feeding system and pasture, and were then stressed by constraint on the 31th, 38th, 45th and 60th experimental days. Blood samples were taken on these days after animals had been immobilization in a trunk contention for 5 min. Stress was followed by analyzing serum cortisol levels. These peaked on the 45th day and then decreased, but not to baseline, on the 60th day. On the 45th day cortisol levels were significantly lower in animals fed Matricaria chamomilla CH12, suggesting that this product reduces stress. These effects may be a consequence of its inhibiting cortisol production and its calming and anxiolytic effects. (+info)