A worksite smoking intervention: a 2 year assessment of groups, incentives and self-help.
Sixty-three companies in the Chicago area were recruited to participate in a worksite smoking cessation program. Participants in each worksite received a television program and newspaper supplement (part of a community-wide media campaign), and one of three conditions: (1) self-help manuals alone (M), (2) self-help manuals and incentives for 6 months (IM) or (3) maintenance manuals, incentives and cognitive-behavioral support groups for 6 months (GIM). Results at the 2 year assessment are examined using a random-effects regression model. In addition, various definitions of quit-rate commonly used in smoking cessation research are explored and the advantages of using a public health approach in the worksite are examined. (+info)
The diagnostic and statistical manual for primary care (DSM-PC), child and adolescent version: what pediatric psychologists need to know.
OBJECTIVE: To address the need for a comprehensive, developmentally appropriate method to facilitate primary care pediatricians' recognition, management, and referral of a wide spectrum of childrens' behavioral and developmental problems, as well as stressful situations. METHODS: Use of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Primary Care (DSM-PC), Child and Adolescent Version can facilitate psychologists' abilities to conduct research concerning the prevalence of behavioral and developmental problems, describe collaborative practice in primary care, and train pediatricians to recognize and manage common behavioral and developmental problems. CONCLUSIONS: Strategies to enhance utilization of the DSM-PC include more widespread dissemination of information concerning the manual and its practical utility, promotion of reimbursement for its use, and documenting applications of the DSM-PC in teaching, practice, and research. (+info)
Bridging the gap between the science and service of HIV prevention: transferring effective research-based HIV prevention interventions to community AIDS service providers.
OBJECTIVES: AIDS service organizations (ASOs) rarely have access to the information needed to implement research-based HIV prevention interventions for their clients. We compared the effectiveness of 3 dissemination strategies for transferring HIV prevention models from the research arena to community providers of HIV prevention services. METHODS: Interviews were conducted with the directors of 74 ASOs to assess current HIV prevention services. ASOs were randomized to programs that provided (1) technical assistance manuals describing how to implement research-based HIV prevention interventions, (2) manuals plus a staff training workshop on how to conduct the implementation, or (3) manuals, the training workshop, and follow-up telephone consultation calls. Follow-up interviews determined whether the intervention model had been adopted. RESULTS: The dissemination package that provided ASOs with implementation manuals, staff training workshops, and follow-up consultation resulted in more frequent adoption and use of the research-based HIV prevention intervention for gay men, women, and other client populations. CONCLUSIONS: Strategies are needed to quickly transfer research-based HIV prevention methods to community providers of HIV prevention services. Active collaboration between researchers and service agencies results in more successful program adoption than distribution of implementation packages alone. (+info)
Predicting smoking cessation and major depression in nicotine-dependent smokers.
OBJECTIVES: This study examined the relationship of nicotine dependence with smoking cessation and major depression, using the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Revised Third Edition (DSM-III-R). METHODS: In an epidemiologic study of young adults that used the FTND and the National Institute of Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule, 238 daily smokers were assessed with respect to nicotine dependence. Cessation (abstinence for 1 year or more) was assessed 2 years later. RESULTS: FTND-defined nicotine dependence predicted cessation, with non-dependent smokers 4 times more likely to quit. DSM-III-R-defined nicotine dependence also predicted cessation, but much more weakly. Number of cigarettes per day was the best predictor of cessation. FTND-defined dependence was unrelated to major depression, whereas DSM-III-R-defined dependence signaled a 3-fold risk for major depression. The association of DSM-III-R-defined nicotine dependence with major depression might be driven by the behavioral rather than the physiologic symptoms of dependence. CONCLUSIONS: The more a measure of dependence is based exclusively on level of daily smoking, the greater is its ability to predict cessation. The number of DSM-III-R behavioral symptoms might be an indicator of severity of dependence or of personality traits, which in turn might be associated with major depression. (+info)
Identifying problem and compulsive gamblers.
OBJECTIVE: To present a meta-analysis of current research on the prevalence, identification, and treatment of problem and compulsive gamblers. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Problem and compulsive gambling was not a socio-scientific concern until the last two decades. Hence research on this topic is limited. The summary and analysis for this paper relied on computer searches of journal and news abstracts in addition to direct contact with organizations addressing the identification and treatment of compulsive gamblers. MAIN MESSAGE: An estimated 5% of those who gamble run into problems. About 1% of those who gamble are predicted to experience serious problems. Successful treatment of problem and compulsive gambling continues to be a challenge. Although cognitive therapy has been the favoured approach, a combination of several therapeutic approaches is advocated. CONCLUSIONS: Problem and compulsive gambling can present a real health threat. As with other addictions, treatment strategies continue to be a baffling social problem. Aware and informed physicians can have a pivotal role in the difficult process of identifying, acknowledging, and remediating problem and compulsive gambling. (+info)
Construction of an interpretive pattern directory for the API 10 S kit and analysis of its diagnostic accuracy.
A directory of test patterns and their interpretations has been prepared for identification of Enterobacteriaceae by using the 11-test API 10 S kit. The diagnostic accuracy of the directory and kit were evaluated by using records of test results for 37,476 isolates studied with the 21-test API 20 Enteric kit. Analysis indicates that 96.9% of the isolates would have been correctly identified at the genus level and 95.9% at the species level by using only the subset of tests included in the API 10 S. (+info)
Enhancing readiness-to-change substance abuse in persons with schizophrenia. A four-session motivation-based intervention.
This article describes a four-session intervention designed for persons with co-occurring substance abuse and schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, to be administered as an add-on module to supplement ongoing mental health treatment in an outpatient setting. The intervention targets those dually diagnosed individuals with low readiness-to-change as indicated by current use, and/or low level of engagement in treatment for substance abuse. The intervention is designed to increase problem recognition, to enhance motivation to change maladaptive patterns of substance use, and to facilitate engagement in substance abuse treatment. To achieve these goals, the authors have adopted constructs from the Transtheoretical Model of Change, the authors used principles of motivational and harm reduction interventions, and tailored them to the target population. (+info)
Managing newborn health in the global community.
The largest health disparities in the world are found in maternal and neonatal mortality figures between the industrialized countries and the poorest sections of the poorest countries. Young lives would be saved if the skills and knowledge that have been accumulated by health workers around the world could be readily applied. The problems reside with lack of management resources rather than lack of scientific knowledge. "The Healthy Newborn: A Reference Manual for Program Managers" is a graduate course in management aimed at providing health to newborns and healthy newborns to communities. (+info)