Geographic origin and taxonomic status of the invasive Privet, Ligustrum robustum (Oleaceae), in the Mascarene Islands, determined by chloroplast DNA and RAPDs.
Information concerning the area of origin, genetic diversity and possible acquisition of germplasm through hybridisation is fundamental to understanding the evolution, ecology and possible control measures for an introduced invasive plant species. Among the most damaging of alien plants that are invading and degrading native vegetation in the Mascarene Islands of the Indian Ocean is the Tree Privet, Ligustrum robustum. Exact information about the geographic source of introduced material of this species is lacking, in part because Ligustrum is a taxonomically difficult genus. Native material of L. robustum ssp. walkeri from Sri Lanka, L. robustum ssp. robustum from northeastern India, and the closely related L. perrottetii from southern India was compared with introduced material from La Reunion and Mauritius using chloroplast DNA RFLP markers and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPDs). Sri Lankan and introduced material was monomorphic for the same cpDNA haplotype that was absent from south and northeast Indian Ligustrum. Sri Lankan and introduced material was also clearly distinguished from Indian Ligustrum by RAPDs. It was concluded that material introduced and established in the Mascarene Islands is derived from the Sri Lankan subspecies L. robustum ssp. walkeri. No geographic structuring of genetic variation within Sri Lanka was detected for this taxon, so the location(s) within Sri Lanka from which introduced material is derived could not be pinpointed. RAPDs indicate that L. robustum ssp. walkeri in Sri Lanka is more similar to south Indian L. perrottetii than to northeast Indian L. robustum ssp. robustum. Moreover, RAPDs showed that introduced material in La Reunion has undergone little or no loss of genetic diversity since introduction. However, there was no evidence that it is introgressed with germplasm from two other alien Ligustrum species present on La Reunion. (+info)
Effects of Fructus Ligustri Lucidi extract on bone turnover and calcium balance in ovariectomized rats.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Fructus Ligustri Lucidi (FLL), a kidney-tonifying Chinese herbal medicine, on the biochemical markers of bone turnover, calcium metabolism and balance in osteoporotic rat model developed by ovariectomy. Four weeks after surgical operation, animals were randomly assigned to one of the four treatments for 14 weeks: sham-operated control treated with vehicle (sham, n=8), ovariectomized group treated with vehicle (OVX, n=8), OVX group treated with 17beta-estradiol (E(2), n=10, 2 microg/kg/d) and OVX group treated with FLL extracts (FLL, n=10, 550 mg/kg/d). Serum osteocalcin and urinary deoxypyridinoline levels were upregulated in rats in response to OVX, suggesting that the bone turnover rate was accelerated in these animals. Treatment of OVX rats with FLL extract could prevent OVX-induced increase in bone turnover by suppression of both serum osteocalcin (p<0.05, vs. OVX) and urinary deoxypyridinoline (p<0.05, vs. OVX) levels. In addition, FLL extract could prevent OVX-induced loss of calcium in rats by increasing the intestinal calcium absorption rate (p<0.01, vs. OVX), suppressing urinary Ca excretion (p<0.05, vs. OVX) as well as increasing bone calcium content (p<0.05, vs. OVX). Our study is the first to report that FLL can modulate bone turnover and calcium balance in OVX rats and it might be a potential candidate for prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. (+info)
Antimutagenic activity and radical scavenging activity of water infusions and phenolics from ligustrum plants leaves.
Six new secoiridoids from the dried fruits of Ligustrum lucidum.
Six new secoiridoid constituents, named isoligustrosidic acid (1), 6'-O-trans-cinnamoyl 8-epikingisidic acid (2), 6'-O-cis-cinnamoyl 8-epikingisidic acid (3), oleopolynuzhenide A (4), nuzhenals A (5) and B (6) were isolated from the dried fruits of Ligustrum lucidum AIT. Their structures were established on the basis of spectral and chemical data. (+info)