Antimicrobial growth promoter ban and resistance to macrolides and vancomycin in enterococci from pigs. (1/18)

Ninety-six enterococcus isolates from fecal samples of pigs receiving tylosin as an antimicrobial growth promoter and 59 isolates obtained in the same farms 5 to 6 months after the ban of antimicrobial growth promoters in Switzerland were tested for susceptibility to nine antimicrobial agents. A clear decrease in resistance to macrolides, lincosamides, and tetracycline was visible after the ban. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium belonged to the same clonal lineage as vancomycin-resistant isolates previously isolated from Danish pigs.  (+info)

Foreign establishment registration and listing. Final rule. (2/18)

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final rule to amend its regulations pertaining to the registration of foreign establishments and the listing of human drugs, animal drugs, biological products, and devices. The final rule requires foreign establishments whose products are imported or offered for import into the United States to register with FDA and to identify a United States agent. The final rule implements section 417 of the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 (FDAMA) as it pertains to foreign establishment registration.  (+info)

Vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease: the implications for Canada. (3/18)

Vaccination of susceptible animals against foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a well established strategy for helping to combat the disease. Traditionally, FMD vaccine has been used to control a disease incursion in countries where the disease has been endemic rather than in countries considered free of the disease. In 2001, the use of vaccine was considered but not implemented in the United Kingdom (1), whereas vaccine was used to help to control FMD in The Netherlands (2,3). Canadian contingency plans provide for the use of vaccine; Canada is a member of the North American Foot-and-Mouth Disease Vaccine Bank, which could supply vaccine if needed. This article explains why Canada might use FMD vaccine to combat an outbreak and the factors that are relevant to the disposal of vaccinated animals and their products. It concludes that vaccination is an important mechanism in Canada's preparedness for an outbreak of FMD and that products from vaccinated animals are safe for human consumption.  (+info)

Impact of antimicrobial resistance on regulatory policies in veterinary medicine: status report. (4/18)

Increasing resistance to antimicrobial agents is of growing concern to public health officials worldwide. The concern includes infections acquired in hospitals, community infections acquired in outpatient care settings, and resistant foodborne disease associated with drug use in food-producing animals. In the United States, a significant source of antimicrobial-resistant foodborne infections in humans is the acquisition of resistant bacteria originating from animals. The US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) goal in resolving the public health impact arising from the use of antimicrobial drugs in food-producing animals is to ensure that significant human antimicrobial therapies are not compromised or lost while providing for the safe use of antimicrobials in food animals. The FDA's approach to the problem is multipronged and innovative. The strategy includes revision of the pre-approval safety assessment for new animal drug applications, use of risk assessment to determine the human health effect resulting from the use of antimicrobials in food animals, robust monitoring for changes in susceptibilities among foodborne pathogens to drugs that are important both in human and veterinary medicine, research, and risk management.  (+info)

Regulatory issues surrounding the use of companion animals in clinical investigations, trials, and studies. (5/18)

Laboratory animal veterinarians sometimes encounter animals with rare conditions and may subsequently become involved in the performance of related animal research outside the laboratory, in homes, in veterinary clinics, or in universities to which owners have donated their animals for study. Similarly, veterinarians may monitor animal companion vaccination studies, performed to optimize preventive health care or minimize physiological variability and research confounders associated with a preventive medicine program for dogs and cats utilized for research procedures. These nontraditional uses of dogs, cats, and other companion animals in research have spurred the establishment of regulations to ensure that the animals benefit from clinical veterinary products and techniques. Included and described are the 2002 Public Health Service Policy, the Animal Welfare Act (AWA), the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, and the regulations of the US Department of Agriculture in response to the AWA. The complexities of clinical research with companion animals outside standard biomedical research facilities are discussed.  (+info)

Availability and estimates of veterinary antimicrobial use in British Columbia. (6/18)

The amount of antimicrobial use is a significant selection pressure that alters the frequency of antimicrobial resistance. This paper summarizes attempts to estimate the weight of antimicrobial purchases in British Columbia for use in animals. The data reported here do not capture all sources of veterinary antimicrobial use in British Columbia. This paper highlights how information deficits on veterinary drug use complicate the development of an evidence-based policy framework for combating antimicrobial resistance.  (+info)

Antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter strains isolated from French broilers before and after antimicrobial growth promoter bans. (7/18)

OBJECTIVES: The antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter strains isolated from standard and free-range broilers in 1992-1996 and 2001-2002 was studied. METHODS: Strains were isolated from caeca or skin samples collected from standard or free-range broilers arriving in slaughterhouses. The MICs of ampicillin, nalidixic acid, enrofloxacin, tetracycline, erythromycin and gentamicin were determined by agar dilution and compared according to species (Campylobacter jejuni or Campylobacter coli), production system and sampling period. RESULTS: Results showed that all chickens harboured Campylobacter. An increase over time of the C. coli/C. jejuni ratio for standard chickens occurred. A wide range of MICs was observed among isolates from the same broiler or from the same farm. Strains collected on entry to the slaughterhouse and after storage showed no significant difference in their antibiotic resistance. C. coli was more resistant than C. jejuni to tetracycline and erythromycin during the first period and to all tested molecules (except gentamicin) during the second period. Strains isolated from standard chickens were also more often resistant than those isolated from free-range broilers. The percentage of C. jejuni strains resistant to ampicillin decreased from 1992-1996 to 2001-2002, whereas no change could be observed for the other antimicrobial agents. However, for C. coli the resistance to ampicillin, nalidixic acid, enrofloxacin, tetracycline and erythromycin significantly increased. CONCLUSION: There was an increase in the incidence of antibiotic resistance of C. coli between 1992-1996 and 2001-2002.  (+info)

A preliminary equine abuse policy with potential application to veterinary practice. (8/18)

An equine abuse policy was developed as an adjunct to an equine management survey. If at least 3 of 5 categories caused concern, a report to the authorities was indicated. The policy was not used but, in the absence of other guidelines, it might assist veterinarians considering potential abuse cases.  (+info)