Molecular characterization and crystallization of Diocleinae lectins.
Molecular characterization of seven Diocleinae lectins was assessed by sequence analysis, determination of molecular masses by mass spectrometry, and analytical ultracentrifugation equilibrium sedimentation. The lectins show distinct pH-dependent dimer-tetramer equilibria, which we hypothesize are due to small primary structure differences at key positions. Lectins from Dioclea guianensis, Dioclea virgata, and Cratylia floribunda seeds have been crystallized and preliminary X-ray diffraction analyses are reported. (+info)
Lectins as membrane components of mitochondria from Ricinus communis.
1. Mitochondria were isolated from developing endosperm of Ricinus communis and were fractionated into outer membrane and inner membrane. The relative purity of the two membrane fractions was determined by marker enzymes. The fractions were also examined by negative-stain electron microscopy. 2. Membrane fractions were sequentially extracted in the following way. (a) Suspension in 0.5M-potassium phosphate, pH7.1; (b)suspension in 0.1M-EDTA (disodium salt)/0.05M-potassium phosphate, pH7.1; (c) sonication in 0.05M-potassium phosphate, pH7.1;(d)sonication in aq. Triton X-100 (0.1%). The membranes were pelleted by centrifugation at 100 000g for 15 min, between each step. Agglutination activity in the extracts was investigated by using trypsin-treated rabbit erythrocytes. 3. The addition of lactose to inner mitochondrial membrane resulted in the solubilization of part of the lectin activity, indicating that the protein was attached to the membrane via its carbohydrate-binding site. Pretreatment of the membranes with lactose before tha usual extraction procedure showed that lactose could extract lectins that normally required more harsh treatment of the membrane for solubilization. 4. Lectins extracted from inner membranes were purified by affinity chromatography on agarose gel. Polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of purified samples in sodium dodecyl sulphate indicated that at least part of the lectin present in inner mitochondrial membrane was identical with the R. communis agglutinin of mol.wt. 120 000. (+info)
Post-translational processing of two alpha-amylase inhibitors and an arcelin from the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris.
Mass spectrometric methods were used to investigate the proteolytic processing and glycopeptide structures of three seed defensive proteins from Phaseolus vulgaris. The proteins were the alpha-amylase inhibitors alphaAI-1 and alphaAI-2 and arcelin-5, all of which are related to the seed lectins, PHA-E and PHA-L. The mass data showed that the proteolytic cleavage required for activation of the amylase inhibitors is followed by loss of the terminal Asn residue in alphaAI-1, and in all three proteins, seven or more residues were clipped from the C-termini, in the manner of the seed lectins. In most instances, individual glycoforms could be assigned at each Asn site, due to the unique masses of the plant glycopeptides. It was found that alphaAI-1 and alphaAI-2 differed significantly in their glycosylation patterns, despite their high sequence homology. These data complement the previous X-ray studies of the alpha1-amylase inhibitor and arcelin, where many of the C-terminal residues and glycopeptide residues could not be observed. (+info)
The distribution of sugar chains on the vomeronasal epithelium observed with an atomic force microscope.
The distribution of sugar chains on tissue sections of the rat vomeronasal epithelium, and the adhesive force between the sugar and its specific lectin were examined with an atomic force microscope (AFM). AFM tips were modified with a lectin, Vicia villosa agglutinin, which recognizes terminal N-acetyl-D-galactosamine (GalNAc). When a modified tip scanned the luminal surface of the sensory epithelium, adhesive interactions between the tip and the sample surface were observed. The final rupture force was calculated to be approximately 50 pN based on the spring constant of the AFM cantilever. Distribution patterns of sugar chains obtained from the force mapping image were very similar to those observed using fluorescence-labeled lectin staining. AFM also revealed distribution patterns of sugar chains at a higher resolution than those obtained with fluorescence microscopy. Most of the adhesive interactions disappeared when the scanning solution contained 1 mM GaINAc. The adhesive interactions were restored by removing the sugar from the solution. Findings suggest that the adhesion force observed are related to the binding force between the lectin and the sugars distributed across the vomeronasal epithelium. (+info)
A gene encoding a hevein-like protein from elderberry fruits is homologous to PR-4 and class V chitinase genes.
We isolated SN-HLPf (Sambucus nigra hevein-like fruit protein), a hevein-like chitin-binding protein, from mature elderberry fruits. Cloning of the corresponding gene demonstrated that SN-HLPf is synthesized as a chimeric precursor consisting of an N-terminal chitin-binding domain corresponding to the mature elderberry protein and an unrelated C-terminal domain. Sequence comparisons indicated that the N-terminal domain of this precursor has high sequence similarity with the N-terminal domain of class I PR-4 (pathogenesis-related) proteins, whereas the C terminus is most closely related to that of class V chitinases. On the basis of these sequence homologies the gene encoding SN-HLPf can be considered a hybrid between a PR-4 and a class V chitinase gene. (+info)
Selective killing of CD8+ cells with a 'memory' phenotype (CD62Llo) by the N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-specific lectin from Viscum album L.
As reported previously by our group, among the toxic proteins from Viscum album L. only the mistletoe lectins (MLs) induce the apoptotic killing pathway in human lymphocytes. Although one may expect a homogenous distribution of carbohydrate domains on cell surface receptors for the carbohydrate binding B chains of the toxic protein, the sensitivity of cells to these B chains obviously differ. Here we report a selective killing of CD8+ CD62Llo cells from healthy individuals by the galNAc-specific ML III (and RCA60, which binds to gal and galNAc), while the gal-specific ML I was less effective. This selective killing is not sufficiently explained by protein synthesis inhibition alone, since this subset was not affected by other ribosome inhibiting proteins such as the lectin from Ricinus communis (RCA120), lectin from Abrus precatorus (APA), abrin A, and inhibitors of RNA, DNA and/or protein synthesis such as actinomycin D, mitomycin C, and cycloheximide. We conclude that CD8+ cells with 'memory' phenotype (CD62Llo) are more sensitive to the ML III-mediated killing than their CD8+ CD62Lhi counterparts, CD4+ T cells, and CD19+ B cells. These cells probably express a distinct receptor with galNAc domains that is missing or not active on CD8+ cells with a 'naive' phenotype. (+info)
Underglycosylation of IgA1 hinge plays a certain role for its glomerular deposition in IgA nephropathy.
This study was performed to isolate and investigate the IgA1 that could accumulate in glomeruli (glomerulophilic IgA1). IgA1 was fractionated by the electric charge and the reactivity to Jacalin. Serum IgA1 of IgA nephropathy patients was separated and fractionated using a Jacalin column and subsequent ion-exchange chromatography. The fractions were divided into three groups of relatively cationic (C), neutral (N), and anionic (A). IgA1 was also divided into Jacalin low (L), intermediate (I), and high (H) affinity fractions by serial elution using 25, 100, and 800 mM galactose. The left kidneys of Wistar rats were perfused with 2, 5, or 10 mg of each group of IgA1. The rats were sacrificed 15 min, 30 min, 3 h, or 24 h after the perfusion. The accumulation of each IgA1 in the glomeruli was then observed by immunofluorescence. The IgA1 of the fractions N and H separated by the two methods was definitely accumulated in the rat glomeruli with a similar pattern. The electrophoresis revealed that the macromolecular IgA1 was increased in fraction H compared with other fractions. Therefore, Jacalin high-affinity IgA1(fraction H) was applied on a diethylaminoethyl column and divided into electrically cationic (HC), neutral (HN), and anionic (HA). Only the asialo-Galbeta1,3GalNAc chain was identified in the fraction HN IgA1 by gas-phase hydrazinolysis. Furthermore, the IgA1 fraction was strongly recognized by peanut agglutinin, Vicia Villosa lectins, and antisynthetic hinge peptide antibody. These results indicated that the IgA1 molecules having the underglycosylated hinge glycopeptide played a certain role in the glomerular accumulation of IgA1 in IgA nephropathy. (+info)
Vicia faba agglutinin, the lectin present in broad beans, stimulates differentiation of undifferentiated colon cancer cells.
BACKGROUND: Dietary lectins can alter the proliferation of colonic cells. Differentiation is regulated by adhesion molecules which, being glycosylated, are targets for lectin binding. AIMS: To examine the effects of dietary lectins on differentiation, adhesion, and proliferation of colorectal cancer cells. METHODS: Differentiation was assessed in three dimensional gels, adhesion by aggregation assay, and proliferation by 3H thymidine incorporation. The role of the epithelial cell adhesion molecule (epCAM) was studied using a specific monoclonal antibody in blocking studies and Western blots. The human colon cancer cell lines LS174T, SW1222, and HT29 were studied. RESULTS: The cell line LS174T differentiated in the presence of Vicia faba agglutinin (VFA) into gland like structures. This was inhibited by anti-epCAM monoclonal antibody. Expression of epCAM itself was unaffected. VFA as well as wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) and the edible mushroom lectin (Agaricus bisporus lectin, ABL) significantly aggregated LS174T cells but peanut agglutinin (PNA) and soybean agglutinin (SBA) did not. All lectins aggregated SW1222 and HT29 cells. Aggregation was blocked by the corresponding sugars. Aggregation of cells by VFA was also inhibited by anti-epCAM. VFA, ABL, and WGL inhibited proliferation of all the cell lines; PNA stimulated proliferation of HT29 and SW1222 cells. In competition studies all sugars blocked aggregation and proliferation of all cell lines, except that the addition of mannose alone inhibited proliferation. CONCLUSION: VFA stimulated an undifferentiated colon cancer cell line to differentiate into gland like structures. The adhesion molecule epCAM is involved in this. Dietary or therapeutic VFA may slow progression of colon cancer. (+info)