Alpha-2 adrenergic receptor functional coupling to G proteins in rat brain during postnatal development.
During postnatal development, alpha-2 adrenergic receptors (A2AR) change in both density and distribution. In forebrain, receptor density increases about 4-fold over neonatal levels, reaching adult levels before postnatal day (P) 28, whereas in hindbrain, including cerebellum, there is a decrease in overall receptor density. We examined the coupling of A2AR to G proteins using agonist-stimulated [35S]GTPgammaS binding as a functional assay. In forebrain the A2AR agonist-stimulated [35S]GTPgammaS binding increases rapidly after P7, reaching its highest levels at P21 and then declining slightly to adult levels. This binding increases more slowly than receptor number, suggesting that the appearance of G proteins, rather than the A2AR, determines the developmental appearance of functional A2AR-G protein interactions in forebrain. Basal [35S]GTPgammaS binding and [35S]GTPgammaS binding stimulated by other neurotransmitter receptor systems (GABA-B, mu opiate, and muscarinic) increase with a time course similar to A2AR-stimulated [35S]GTPgammaS binding. In contrast, in hindbrain, A2AR-stimulated [35S]GTPgammaS binding decreases during postnatal development in parallel with the decrease in A2AR levels, whereas [35S]GTPgammaS binding stimulated by other neurotransmitter receptor systems increases in parallel with basal [35S]GTPgammaS binding. Functional receptor-G protein coupling in hindbrain appears to be dependent on the developmental appearance of G proteins for most neurotransmitter systems. However, for A2AR the decrease in receptor density is the overriding factor. These studies 1) demonstrate the functional measurement of A2AR-G protein coupling in native tissue for the first time, 2) demonstrate that A2AR are coupled to G proteins throughout postnatal development, and 3) describe developmental increases and decreases in functional A2AR in brain. (+info
Facilitation of signal onset and termination by adenylyl cyclase.
The alpha subunit (Gsalpha) of the stimulatory heterotrimeric guanosine triphosphate binding protein (G protein) Gs activates all isoforms of mammalian adenylyl cyclase. Adenylyl cyclase (Type V) and its subdomains, which interact with Gsalpha, promoted inactivation of the G protein by increasing its guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) activity. Adenylyl cyclase and its subdomains also augmented the receptor-mediated activation of heterotrimeric Gs and thereby facilitated the rapid onset of signaling. These findings demonstrate that adenylyl cyclase functions as a GTPase activating protein (GAP) for the monomeric Gsalpha and enhances the GTP/GDP exchange factor (GEF) activity of receptors. (+info
Regulation of a volume-sensitive anion channel in rat pancreatic beta-cells by intracellular adenine nucleotides.
1. The patch-clamp technique in the whole-cell configuration was used to measure the effects of intracellular adenine nucleotides on activity of the volume-sensitive anion channel in single, isolated rat pancreatic beta-cells. 2. In the absence of intracellular nucleotides, swelling of cells with a hypertonic pipette solution failed to activate the conductance. Addition of ATP over the range 2-10 mM maintaining the same degree of hypertonicity caused a progressive activation of the conductance. An increase in ATP produced a similar activation of the conductance in non-swollen cells, albeit with reduced current amplitudes. 3. Activation of the conductance was also observed in the presence of ATPgammaS, adenylyl imidophosphate (AMP-PNP), ADP, diadenosine tetraphosphate and GTPgammaS. Neither ADP nor GDPbetaS inhibited activation of the conductance by ATP. 4. It is concluded that activity of the beta-cell volume-sensitive anion channel can be modulated by changes in intracellular concentrations of ATP within the physiological concentration range by a mechanism that does not require nucleotide hydrolysis. Activity of the channel does not appear to be modulated by a G protein-coupled mechanism. (+info
G protein activation by human dopamine D3 receptors in high-expressing Chinese hamster ovary cells: A guanosine-5'-O-(3-[35S]thio)- triphosphate binding and antibody study.
Despite extensive study, the G protein coupling of dopamine D3 receptors is poorly understood. In this study, we used guanosine-5'-O-(3-[35S]thio)-triphosphate ([35S]-GTPgammaS) binding to investigate the activation of G proteins coupled to human (h) D3 receptors stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Although the receptor expression level was high (15 pmol/mg), dopamine only stimulated G protein activation by 1.6-fold. This was despite the presence of marked receptor reserve for dopamine, as revealed by Furchgott analysis after irreversible hD3 receptor inactivation with the alkylating agent, EEDQ (N-ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline). Thus, half-maximal stimulation of [35S]-GTPgammaS binding required only 11.8% receptor occupation of hD3 sites. In contrast, although the hD2(short) receptor expression level in another CHO cell line was 11-fold lower, stimulation by dopamine was higher (2.5-fold). G protein activation was increased at hD3 and, less potently, at hD2 receptors by the preferential D3 agonists, PD 128,907 [(+)-(4aR,10bR)-3,4,4a, 10b-tetrahydro-4-propyl-2H,5H- benzopyrano[4,3-b]-1, 4-oxazin-9-ol] and (+)-7-OH-DPAT (7-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin). Furthermore, the selective D3 antagonists, S 14297 ((+)-[7-(N, N-dipropylamino)-5,6,7, 8-tetrahydro-naphtho(2,3b)dihydro-2,3-furane]) and GR 218,231 (2(R, S)-(dipropylamino)-6-(4-methoxyphenylsulfonylmethyl)-1,2,3,4- tetrahydronaphtalene), blocked dopamine-stimulated [35S]GTPgammaS binding more potently at hD3 than at hD2 sites. Antibodies against Galphai/alphao reduced dopamine-induced G protein activation at both CHO-hD3 and -hD2 membranes, whereas GalphaS antibodies had no effect at either site. In contrast, incubation with anti-Galphaq/alpha11 antibodies, which did not affect dopamine-induced G protein activation at hD2 receptors, attenuated hD3-induced G protein activation. These data suggest that hD3 receptors may couple to Galphaq/alpha11 and would be consistent with the observation that pertussis toxin pretreatment, which inactivates only Gi/o proteins, only submaximally (80%) blocked dopamine-stimulated [35S]GTPgammaS binding in CHO-hD3 cells. Taken together, the present data indicate that 1) hD3 receptors functionally couple to G protein activation in CHO cells, 2) hD3 receptors activate G proteins less effectively than hD2 receptors, and 3) hD3 receptors may couple to different G protein subtypes than hD2 receptors, including nonpertussis sensitive Gq/11 proteins. (+info
Coupling of coat assembly and vesicle budding to packaging of putative cargo receptors.
COPI-coated vesicle budding from lipid bilayers whose composition resembles mammalian Golgi membranes requires coatomer, ARF, GTP, and cytoplasmic tails of putative cargo receptors (p24 family proteins) or membrane cargo proteins (containing the KKXX retrieval signal) emanating from the bilayer surface. Liposome-derived COPI-coated vesicles are similar to their native counterparts with respect to diameter, buoyant density, morphology, and the requirement for an elevated temperature for budding. These results suggest that a bivalent interaction of coatomer with membrane-bound ARF[GTP] and with the cytoplasmic tails of cargo or putative cargo receptors is the molecular basis of COPI coat assembly and provide a simple mechanism to couple uptake of cargo to transport vesicle formation. (+info
Mixed agonist-antagonist properties of clozapine at different human cloned muscarinic receptor subtypes expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells.
We recently reported that clozapine behaves as a partial agonist at the cloned human m4 muscarinic receptor subtype. In the present study, we investigated whether the drug could elicit similar effects at the cloned human m1, m2, and m3 muscarinic receptor subtypes expressed in the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Clozapine elicited a concentration-dependent stimulation of [3H]inositol phosphates accumulation in CHO cells expressing either the m1 or the m3 receptor subtype. Moreover, clozapine inhibited forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation and enhanced [35S] GTP gamma S binding to membrane G proteins in CHO cells expressing the m2 receptor. These agonist effects of clozapine were antagonized by atropine. The intrinsic activity of clozapine was lower than that of the full cholinergic agonist carbachol, and, when the compounds were combined, clozapine potently reduced the receptor responses to carbachol. These data indicate that clozapine behaves as a partial agonist at different muscarinic receptor subtypes and may provide new hints for understanding the receptor mechanisms underlying the antipsychotic efficacy of the drug. (+info
Roles of the transducin alpha-subunit alpha4-helix/alpha4-beta6 loop in the receptor and effector interactions.
The visual GTP-binding protein, transducin, couples light-activated rhodopsin (R*) with the effector enzyme, cGMP phosphodiesterase in vertebrate photoreceptor cells. The region corresponding to the alpha4-helix and alpha4-beta6 loop of the transducin alpha-subunit (Gtalpha) has been implicated in interactions with the receptor and the effector. Ala-scanning mutagenesis of the alpha4-beta6 region has been carried out to elucidate residues critical for the functions of transducin. The mutational analysis supports the role of the alpha4-beta6 loop in the R*-Gtalpha interface and suggests that the Gtalpha residues Arg310 and Asp311 are involved in the interaction with R*. These residues are likely to contribute to the specificity of the R* recognition. Contrary to the evidence previously obtained with synthetic peptides of Gtalpha, our data indicate that none of the alpha4-beta6 residues directly or significantly participate in the interaction with and activation of phosphodiesterase. However, Ile299, Phe303, and Leu306 form a network of interactions with the alpha3-helix of Gtalpha, which is critical for the ability of Gtalpha to undergo an activational conformational change. Thereby, Ile299, Phe303, and Leu306 play only an indirect role in the effector function of Gtalpha. (+info
Multisite autophosphorylation of p21-activated protein kinase gamma-PAK as a function of activation.
p21-activated protein kinase (PAK) is a family of serine/threonine kinases whose activity is stimulated by binding to small G-proteins such as Cdc42 and subsequent autophosphorylation. Focusing on the ubiquitous gamma-isoform of PAK in this study, baculovirus-infected insect cells were used to obtain recombinant gamma-PAK, while native gamma-PAK was isolated from rabbit reticulocytes. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of gamma-PAK followed by immunoblot analysis revealed a similar profile for native and recombinant gamma-PAK, both consisting of multiple protein spots. Following Cdc42-stimulated autophosphorylation, the two-dimensional profiles of native and recombinant gamma-PAK were characterized by a similar acidic shift, suggesting a common response to Cdc42. To understand the effect of differential phosphorylation on its activation status, gamma-PAK autophosphorylation was conducted in the presence or absence of activators such as Cdc42 and histone II-AS, followed by tryptic digestion and comparative two-dimensional phosphopeptide mapping. The major phosphopeptides were subjected to a combination of manual and automated amino acid sequencing. Overall, eight autophosphorylation sites were identified in Cdc42-activated gamma-PAK, six of which are in common with those previously reported in alpha-PAK, while Ser-19 and Ser-165 appear to be uniquely phosphorylated in the gamma-form. Further, the phosphorylation of Ser-141, Ser-165, and Thr-402 was found to correlate with gamma-PAK activation. (+info